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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010132

Chemical Composition and Deposition Fluxes of Water-Soluble Inorganic Ions on Dry and Wet Deposition Samples in Wuhan, China

1
School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, 388 Lu Mo Road, Wuhan 430074, China
2
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Solomon Mahlangu College of Science and Education, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3038, Morogoro, Tanzania
3
Centre for Environment, Poverty and Sustainable Development, Mzumbe University, P.O. Box 83, Morogoro, Tanzania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 6 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality Monitoring and Assessment)
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Abstract

Measurement of PM2.5 concentration, dry and wet deposition of water-soluble inorganic ions (WSII) and their deposition flux was carried out. During sampling, a total number of 31 samples of PM2.5, five wet deposition samples and seven dry deposition samples were collected. The analyses results showed that the average concentration of PM2.5 was 122.95 µg/m3 whilst that of WSII was 51.63 µg/m3, equivalent to 42% of the total mass of PM2.5. The correlation coefficients between WSII in samples of PM2.5 was significant (r = 0.50 and p-value of 0.0019). Ions of   SO 4 2 , NO 3 , Cl , and   NH 4 + were dominant in the entire samples (PM2.5, dry and wet depositions), nevertheless, the average concentration of both SO 4 2 and Cl were below the China environmental quality standard for surface water. The ratio of dominant anions in wet deposition ( SO 4 2 / NO 3 ) was 1.59, whilst that for dry deposition ( SO 4 2 / Cl ) was 1.4, indicating that acidity was mainly derived from sulphate. In the case of dominant cations, the dry and wet deposition ratios ( Ca 2 + / NH 4 + ) were 1.36 and 1.37, respectively, suggesting the alkaline substances were mainly dominated by calcium salts. Days with higher recorded concentrations of PM2.5 were accompanied by dry and warm boundary layer structure, weak low-level wind and strong inversion layer. View Full-Text
Keywords: air quality; dry deposition; wet deposition; deposition flux; water-soluble inorganic ions air quality; dry deposition; wet deposition; deposition flux; water-soluble inorganic ions
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Qin, J.; Mbululo, Y.; Yang, M.; Yuan, Z.; Nyihirani, F.; Zheng, X. Chemical Composition and Deposition Fluxes of Water-Soluble Inorganic Ions on Dry and Wet Deposition Samples in Wuhan, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 132.

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