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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1970; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091970

Assessment of Bacterial Accumulation and Environmental Factors in Sentinel Oysters and Estuarine Water Quality from the Phang Nga Estuary Area in Thailand

1
Research Unit in Microbial Food Safety and Antimicrobial Resistance, Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
2
Western Institute for Food Safety and Security, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95618, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract

This study characterized microbiological and chemical contamination of oyster meat and estuarine water in Phang Nga, Thailand. Pooled oyster meats (n = 144), estuarine waters (n = 96) and environmental parameters were collected from March, 2016 to February, 2017, and assessed for levels of total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), Escherichia coli (EC), and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP), presence of Salmonella and Shigella and levels of heavy metals (Mn, Pb and Cd). The prevalence of TC, FC and EC were in 99.3%, 94.4% and 93.1% of oyster meat and 94.8%, 79.2%, and 78.1% of water, respectively. The average VP levels was 8.5 × 107 most probable number (MPN)/g oyster. Prevalence of Shigella and Salmonella in the pooled oysters were 7.6% and 30.6%, respectively. The dominant Salmonella serovars were Paratyphi B followed by Seremban, and Kentucky. In contrast, the prevalence of Shigella were 27.1%, but Salmonella was not detected in estuarine water. Factors statistically associated with EC accumulation in oyster were level of FC, 7-day average precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and presence of Salmonella in the sample. The optimal cutoff value of EC to predict Salmonella in oyster was 420 MPN/g. Results indicate this area has relatively safe levels of heavy metals, whereas bacterial contamination was very high for oysters. View Full-Text
Keywords: Escherichia coli; estuarine water; fecal coliforms; oyster; Salmonella; Shigella; Vibrio parahaemolyticus Escherichia coli; estuarine water; fecal coliforms; oyster; Salmonella; Shigella; Vibrio parahaemolyticus
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Jeamsripong, S.; Chuanchuen, R.; Atwill, E.R. Assessment of Bacterial Accumulation and Environmental Factors in Sentinel Oysters and Estuarine Water Quality from the Phang Nga Estuary Area in Thailand. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1970.

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