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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1906;

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Diabetes in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study from Pakistan

Department of Pharmacy Administration and Clinical Pharmacy, School of pharmacy Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710061, China
Center for Drug Safety and Policy Research, Xian Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710061, China
Shaanxi Centre for Health Reform and Development Research, Xi’an 710061, China
Department of Statistics, Data Science and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Arts and Design, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne VIC 3122, Australia
Organization for Rural Community Development, Dariapur, Narail 7500, Bangladesh
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
School of Nursing, Health Science center, College of Medicine, Xian Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710061, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 July 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 2 September 2018
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Background: Low knowledge about diabetes risk factors coupled with high disease prevalence is common in low-resource countries. This study evaluated diabetes-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices in the general population in Punjab (Pakistan). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts in Punjab from January to March 2017. Data were collected from 2019 adults aged 18–90 years through face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. The total knowledge score ranged from 0–9; a score ≥6 was considered adequate diabetes awareness. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and linear and binary logistic regression were used for the analyses. Results: Respondents’ mean age was 32.92 ± 11.4 years. In total, 85.9% of respondents had heard of diabetes, and 30.1% knew about the glucose tolerance test. We found 2.3% of respondents scored zero for diabetes knowledge, 11.3% scored 9, and 47.4% scored ≥6 (adequate awareness). Being female (β = 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.16, 0.05; p = 0.001), socioeconomic status (β = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.36; p < 0.001), being diabetic (β = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.53, 1.10; p < 0.001), and higher education (β = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.33; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with knowledge score. Respondents with high socioeconomic status showed significantly higher positive attitudes compared with those with low socioeconomic status (adjusted odds ratio 1.57, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.24). Only 8.7% (30/343) of those diagnosed with diabetes had never undergone blood glucose screening since diagnosis. Conclusions: Knowledge of diabetes risk factors, management, and care is low in Pakistan’s general population. Targeted public education programs should be instigated at a national level to increase understanding of diabetes prevention and treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: knowledge; attitude; practice; diabetes mellitus; general population; Pakistan knowledge; attitude; practice; diabetes mellitus; general population; Pakistan

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Gillani, A.H.; Amirul Islam, F.M.; Hayat, K.; Atif, N.; Yang, C.; Chang, J.; Qu, Z.; Fang, Y. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Diabetes in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study from Pakistan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1906.

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