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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1906; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091906

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Diabetes in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study from Pakistan

1
Department of Pharmacy Administration and Clinical Pharmacy, School of pharmacy Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710061, China
2
Center for Drug Safety and Policy Research, Xian Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710061, China
3
Shaanxi Centre for Health Reform and Development Research, Xi’an 710061, China
4
Department of Statistics, Data Science and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Arts and Design, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne VIC 3122, Australia
5
Organization for Rural Community Development, Dariapur, Narail 7500, Bangladesh
6
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
7
School of Nursing, Health Science center, College of Medicine, Xian Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710061, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 July 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 2 September 2018
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Abstract

Background: Low knowledge about diabetes risk factors coupled with high disease prevalence is common in low-resource countries. This study evaluated diabetes-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices in the general population in Punjab (Pakistan). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts in Punjab from January to March 2017. Data were collected from 2019 adults aged 18–90 years through face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. The total knowledge score ranged from 0–9; a score ≥6 was considered adequate diabetes awareness. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and linear and binary logistic regression were used for the analyses. Results: Respondents’ mean age was 32.92 ± 11.4 years. In total, 85.9% of respondents had heard of diabetes, and 30.1% knew about the glucose tolerance test. We found 2.3% of respondents scored zero for diabetes knowledge, 11.3% scored 9, and 47.4% scored ≥6 (adequate awareness). Being female (β = 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.16, 0.05; p = 0.001), socioeconomic status (β = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.36; p < 0.001), being diabetic (β = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.53, 1.10; p < 0.001), and higher education (β = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.33; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with knowledge score. Respondents with high socioeconomic status showed significantly higher positive attitudes compared with those with low socioeconomic status (adjusted odds ratio 1.57, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.24). Only 8.7% (30/343) of those diagnosed with diabetes had never undergone blood glucose screening since diagnosis. Conclusions: Knowledge of diabetes risk factors, management, and care is low in Pakistan’s general population. Targeted public education programs should be instigated at a national level to increase understanding of diabetes prevention and treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: knowledge; attitude; practice; diabetes mellitus; general population; Pakistan knowledge; attitude; practice; diabetes mellitus; general population; Pakistan
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Gillani, A.H.; Amirul Islam, F.M.; Hayat, K.; Atif, N.; Yang, C.; Chang, J.; Qu, Z.; Fang, Y. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Diabetes in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study from Pakistan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1906.

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