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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1773;

Vitamin D Deficiency in Chronic Kidney Disease: Recent Evidence and Controversies

Kidney Health Service, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, Herston QLD 4029, Australia
Medical School, University of Queensland, Herston QLD 4029, Australia
Laboratory of Medical Research-LIM12, Nephrology Department, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, CEP 01246-903, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Public Health)
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Vitamin D (VD) is a pro-hormone essential for life in higher animals. It is present in few types of foods and is produced endogenously in the skin by a photochemical reaction. The final step of VD activation occurs in the kidneys involving a second hydroxylation reaction to generate the biologically active metabolite 1,25(OH)2-VD. Extrarenal 1α-hydroxylation has also been described to have an important role in autocrine and paracrine signaling. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) has been in the spotlight as a major public healthcare issue with an estimated prevalence of more than a billion people worldwide. Among individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), VDD prevalence has been reported to be as high as 80%. Classically, VD plays a pivotal role in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of evidence supporting the importance of VD in many vital non-skeletal biological processes such as endothelial function, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system modulation, redox balance and innate and adaptive immunity. In individuals with CKD, VDD has been associated with albuminuria, faster progression of kidney disease and increased all-cause mortality. Recent guidelines support VD supplementation in CKD based on extrapolation from cohorts conducted in the general population. In this review, we discuss new insights on the multifactorial pathophysiology of VDD in CKD as well as how it may negatively modulate different organs and systems. We also critically review the latest evidence and controversies of VD monitoring and supplementation in CKD patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: Vitamin D; Vitamin D deficiency; chronic kidney disease; proteinuria Vitamin D; Vitamin D deficiency; chronic kidney disease; proteinuria

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Franca Gois, P.H.; Wolley, M.; Ranganathan, D.; Seguro, A.C. Vitamin D Deficiency in Chronic Kidney Disease: Recent Evidence and Controversies. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1773.

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