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Caffeinated Drinks Intake, Late Chronotype, and Increased Body Mass Index among Medical Students in Chongqing, China: A Multiple Mediation Model

by Yangchang Zhang 1,2,†, Yang Xiong 3,†, Jia Dong 3, Tingting Guo 3, Xiaoman Tang 3 and Yong Zhao 1,4,5,*
1
Department of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
2
Department of Nursing, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
3
Department of the First Clinical Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
4
The Innovation Center for Social Risk Governance in Health, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
5
Research Center for Medicine and Social Development, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1721; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081721
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
Background: This paper investigates the problems regarding caffeinated drinks intake, late chronotype, and increased body mass index (BMI) among medical students at a Chinese university. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2018 with 616 medical students from Chongqing Medical University in Chongqing, China, whose information were collected by a self-reported questionnaire that included four sections: Demographic characteristics; Caffeinated drinks intake and physical state; Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire; Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21. Multiple mediation analyses were conducted to test the impact of late chronotype on increased BMI through caffeinated drinks consumption through two models. Results: The significantly mediated effect of caffeinated drinks consumption was revealed (estimate: −0.01, SE = 0.01, 95% CI [−0.02, −0.01]), and which played a positive role in linking late chronotype (B = −0.01, SE = 0.01, p < 0.001) and increased BMI (B = 1.37, SE = 0.21, p < 0.01), but their significant association did not be found in reversed model. In addition, physical activity and inactivity times demonstrated significant indirect effects in the two models. Conclusions: Interventions should focus on reducing caffeinated drinks intake and sedentary behavior time, enhancing physical activity among medical students. View Full-Text
Keywords: medical students; chronotype; obesity; caffeinated drinks medical students; chronotype; obesity; caffeinated drinks
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Zhang, Y.; Xiong, Y.; Dong, J.; Guo, T.; Tang, X.; Zhao, Y. Caffeinated Drinks Intake, Late Chronotype, and Increased Body Mass Index among Medical Students in Chongqing, China: A Multiple Mediation Model. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1721.

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