Next Article in Journal
Trends and Knowledge Gaps in the Study of Nature-Based Participation by Latinos in the United States
Previous Article in Journal
Association between Access to Public Open Spaces and Physical Activity in a Mediterranean Population at High Cardiovascular Risk
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1286;

Susceptibility to Alcohol Hangovers: The Association with Self-Reported Immune Status

Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, 3584CG Utrecht, The Netherlands
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, 3584CM Utrecht, The Netherlands
Faculty of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Groningen University, 9712TS Groningen, The Netherlands
Nutricia Research, 3584CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC 3122, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
PDF [1026 KB, uploaded 18 June 2018]


Increasing evidence points at a role for the immune system in the genesis of the alcohol hangover. This study investigated the association between self-reported immune function and experiencing hangovers. Dutch students aged 18 to 30 years old were invited to complete an online survey. Eighteen items on immune-related complaints were completed to assess self-reported immune function. Alcohol consumption in the past month (with respect to usual consumption and the occasion of heaviest drinking) was also recorded. Subjects with an estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) of 0.18% or higher on their heaviest drinking occasion in the prior month were included in the analyses. Self-reported immune function was compared between drinkers with a hangover and those who claimed to be hangover resistant. In total, of 481 subjects (79.2% women) with a mean (SD) age of 21.1 (1.9) years old were included in the analysis. Of these, 83.3% (n = 400) reported having hangovers and 16.8% (n = 81) claimed to be hangover resistant. Drinkers with hangovers had significantly higher self-reported overall immune function scores when compared to hangover-resistant drinkers (mean ± SD = 10.5 ± 3.6 versus 13.1 ± 4.9, p = 0.0001), indicating a poorer immune status. In conclusion, experiencing alcohol hangovers is associated with significantly poorer self-reported immune function. View Full-Text
Keywords: alcohol; hangover; resistance; immune function alcohol; hangover; resistance; immune function

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Van de Loo, A.J.A.E.; Mackus, M.; Van Schrojenstein Lantman, M.; Kraneveld, A.D.; Brookhuis, K.A.; Garssen, J.; Scholey, A.; Verster, J.C. Susceptibility to Alcohol Hangovers: The Association with Self-Reported Immune Status. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1286.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top