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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1284; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061284

Antimicrobial Resistance in Food Animals and the Environment in Nigeria: A Review

1
Department of Production Animal Studies (Epidemiology section), Faculty of Veterinary Science, Onderstepoort Campus 0110, University of Pretoria, 0110, South Africa
2
Public Health Agency, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, 11176, Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Immunology Unit, University of Maiduguri, PMB 1069, Maiduguri 600230, Borno State, Nigeria
4
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria 810241, Nigeria
5
Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan 200284, Nigeria
6
Veterinary Drugs/Animal Welfare Branch, Quality Assurance and Standards Division, Department of Veterinary & Pests Control Services, Federal Min. of Agric. & Rural Dev. F.C.D.A, Area 11, Garki, Abuja 900001, Nigeria
7
Center for Clinical Care and Clinical Research, Plot 784, By Glimor Engineering, Off Life camp, Gwarimpa Express Way, Jabi, Abuja 240102, Nigeria
8
Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin 240272, Kwara State, Nigeria
9
Emergency Centre for Transboundary Diseases (ECTAD-FAO), Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nation, Dar es Salaam 0701072, Tanzania
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobials and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment)
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Abstract

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has emerged as a global health threat, which has elicited a high-level political declaration at the United Nations General Assembly, 2016. In response, member countries agreed to pay greater attention to the surveillance and implementation of antimicrobial stewardship. The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control called for a review of AMR in Nigeria using a “One Health approach”. As anecdotal evidence suggests that food animal health and production rely heavily on antimicrobials, it becomes imperative to understand AMR trends in food animals and the environment. We reviewed previous studies to curate data and evaluate the contributions of food animals and the environment (2000–2016) to the AMR burden in Nigeria using a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) flowchart focused on three areas: Antimicrobial resistance, residues, and antiseptics studies. Only one of the 48 antimicrobial studies did not report multidrug resistance. At least 18 bacterial spp. were found to be resistant to various locally available antimicrobials. All 16 residue studies reported high levels of drug residues either in the form of prevalence or concentration above the recommended international limit. Fourteen different “resistotypes” were found in some commonly used antiseptics. High levels of residues and AMR were found in food animals destined for the human food chain. High levels of residues and antimicrobials discharged into environments sustain the AMR pool. These had evolved into potential public health challenges that need attention. These findings constitute public health threats for Nigeria’s teeming population and require attention. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; antibiotics residue; food animals; environment; bacteria; Nigeria antimicrobial resistance; antibiotics residue; food animals; environment; bacteria; Nigeria
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    Description: Figure S1: Flow chart of the methodological strategy (PRISMA 2009 Flow Diagram), Figure S2: Nigeria geopolitical zonal spread of the AMRS reports, Figure S3: Geopolitical zonal spread of the Antimicrobial Residue reports, Figure S4a: Level of resistance within generation of antimicrobials tested, Figure S4b: Proportional (%) pattern of resistance levels within generation of antimicrobials tested, Figure S5a: Frequency of Antimicrobial Resistance levels of classes of antibiotics, Figure S5b: Antimicrobial resistance patterns within classes along generation of antibiotics, Figure S6: Antimicrobial resistance patterns of β-lactam derivatives antibiotics, Figure S7: Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Quinolones, Figure S8: Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Aminoglycosides, Figure S9:Antimicrobial resisitance patterns of Macrolide, Phenicol, and Tetracycline, Figure S10: Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Sulfonamides derivates, Figure S11: Frequency of antimicrobial resistance levels of other classes of antibiotics, Figure S12: Antimicrobial resistance patterns of other classes of antibiotics, Figure S13: Pattern of antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli, Figure S14: Pattern of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella, Figure S15: Pattern of antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus, Figure S16: Pattern of antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas, Figure S17: Pattern of antimicrobial resistance of Klebsiella, Figure S18: Pattern of antimicrobial resistance of other bacteria, Table excel S1: Raw data AMRS, S2: Comprehensive AMRS data, S3: Categorized AMRS data analytical.
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Oloso, N.O.; Fagbo, S.; Garbati, M.; Olonitola, S.O.; Awosanya, E.J.; Aworh, M.K.; Adamu, H.; Odetokun, I.A.; Fasina, F.O. Antimicrobial Resistance in Food Animals and the Environment in Nigeria: A Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1284.

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