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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1259; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061259

Comparison of a 10-Year Cumulative Age-Standardized Incidence Rate of Lung Cancer among Metropolitan Cities in Korea (During the 2000–2009 Period): Review of Occupational and Environmental Hazards Associated with Lung Cancer

1
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University Changwon Hospital, Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, 11, Samjeongja-ro, Seongsan-gu, Changwon-si 51472, Korea
2
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 877, Bangeojinsunhwando-ro, Dong-gu, Ulsan 44033, Korea
3
Department of Preventive Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 877, Bangeojinsunhwando-ro, Dong-gu, Ulsan 44033, Korea
4
Environmental Health Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 877, Bangeojinsunhwando-ro, Dong-gu, Ulsan 44033, Korea
5
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, 22, Gwanpyeong-ro 170 beon-gil, Dongan-gu, Anyang-si 14066, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Abstract

In Korea, lung cancer is a common cancer, and has the highest mortality rate in both males and females. Approximately 80% of lung cancer is due to smoking, and the remaining cases are known to be due to genetic factors, history of respiratory disease, infection, diet, and occupational and environmental factors. Since the occupational and environmental hazards may differ from region to region, the lung cancer risk may differ too. To identify this, we selected seven metropolitan cities, and compared occupational and environmental hazards. Furthermore, we calculated smoking rate adjusted standardized rate ratio (ratio of 10-year cumulative age-standardized incidence rate of lung cancer during the 2000–2009 period at target region versus reference region) to compare the regional lung cancer risk. The result showed that the emissions and concentrations of air pollutant were higher in high-risk regions, and the risk of lung cancer was significantly elevated in such area. In this study, we simultaneously consider the cumulative incidence, age-standardization and smoking rate adjustment. Therefore, we can conclude that the validity of the finding of this study is higher than that of past studies. In conclusion, the occupational and environmental hazards have an effect on lung cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: lung cancer; environmental hazard; occupational hazard lung cancer; environmental hazard; occupational hazard
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Sung, J.H.; Sim, C.S.; Ock, M.; Oh, I.; Jeong, K.S.; Yoo, C. Comparison of a 10-Year Cumulative Age-Standardized Incidence Rate of Lung Cancer among Metropolitan Cities in Korea (During the 2000–2009 Period): Review of Occupational and Environmental Hazards Associated with Lung Cancer. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1259.

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