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Prevalence of Smoking among Men in Ethiopia and Kenya: A Cross-Sectional Study

School of Medicine and Health Management, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China
Faculty of Social Sciences, School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada
Federal Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa 8744, Ethiopia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1232;
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
While tobacco use remains the largest single cause of premature death in the industrialized countries, low-and-middle income countries are also experiencing a rising burden of the tobacco epidemic and are making various programmatic efforts to tackle the issue. Evidence-based policy making is critical to the long-term success of tobacco intervention programs and is reliant on regular monitoring of the trends and prevalence rates of tobacco use though population-based surveys, which are sparse for countries in eastern Africa. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to (1) estimate the trends in the prevalence of self-reported smoking status; and (2) explore the sociodemographic factors associated with smoking among adult men in Ethiopia and Kenya. Methods: Subjects were 26,919 adult men aged between 15 and 59 years from Ethiopia and Kenya. Nationally representative cross-sectional data on self-reported smoking and relevant sociodemographic indicators were collected from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in these two countries. Data analysis was performed by descriptive, bivariate, and multivariable methods. Results: In Ethiopia, the prevalence rate of smoking increased from 8.5% in 2005 to 11.7% in 2011. While in Kenya, the rate declined albeit slowly from 22.9% in 2003 to 18.8% in 2008–2009 and 17% in 2014. The prevalence was significantly different in urban and rural areas. In majority of the surveys, prevalence of smoking was highest in the age group of 25–34 years. The prevalence of smoking varied widely across several socioeconomic characteristics. Conclusions: The findings indicate a high rate of smoking among men especially in urban areas, and call for policy actions to address the socioeconomic factors as a part of the policy to strengthen tobacco-control efforts. View Full-Text
Keywords: Demographic and Health Survey; Ethiopia; Kenya; smoking; tobacco control Demographic and Health Survey; Ethiopia; Kenya; smoking; tobacco control
MDPI and ACS Style

Tang, S.; Bishwajit, G.; Luba, T.R.; Yaya, S. Prevalence of Smoking among Men in Ethiopia and Kenya: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1232.

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