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Cost-of-Illness and the Health-Related Quality of Life of Patients in the Dengue Fever Outbreak in Hanoi in 2017

Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Vietnam Young Physician Association, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
Institute for Global Health Innovations, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam
School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vietnam National University, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
Department of General Planning and Department of Cardiology, Friendship Hospital, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
Department of Psychological Medicine, National University Hospital, Singapore 119074, Singapore
Department of Psychological Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1174;
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 3 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Health Economics)
Dengue fever (DF) outbreaks occur intermittently in Vietnam, and the most recent epidemic happened in 2017. However, attempts to measure the burden of DF in relation to the quality of life and the cost of treatment for patients during an epidemic period are constrained. This study explored the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the cost of illness among patients with dengue fever in Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bach Mai Hospital from September to November 2017. The EuroQol-5 dimensions-5 levels (EQ-5D-5L) was used to measure HRQOL. Cost-of illness was measured by collecting data about the direct medical cost, the non-medical cost, and the indirect cost. Among 225 patients, most of the participants experienced problems regarding mobility (62.3%), self-care (71.8%), usual activities (64.6%), and anxiety/depression (64.1%). The mean EQ-5D index was 0.66 (SD = 0.24). The median cost of illness for inpatient and outpatient groups were US $110.10 (IQR = US $4.40–1200.00) and US $36.10 (IQR = US $1.80–816.30), respectively. Indirect costs accounted for a major proportion in both groups. Lower-skilled workers and those with a higher severity of the disease had significantly lower HRQOL. Meanwhile, people who were inpatients, had comorbidities, had higher incomes, and who experienced a longer disease duration, had a higher cost of treatment. In conclusion, high costs and severe health deterioration, especially in psychological dimensions, were found in patients with DF in Vietnam. Strengthening primary health care services and communication campaigns are necessary to relieve the burden of diseases and could possibly contribute to effective DF control and prevention strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: dengue fever; quality of life; cost of illness; Vietnam dengue fever; quality of life; cost of illness; Vietnam
MDPI and ACS Style

Tran, B.X.; Thu Vu, G.; Hoang Nguyen, L.; Tuan Le Nguyen, A.; Thanh Tran, T.; Thanh Nguyen, B.; Phuong Thi Thai, T.; Latkin, C.A.; Ho, C.S.H.; Ho, R.C.M. Cost-of-Illness and the Health-Related Quality of Life of Patients in the Dengue Fever Outbreak in Hanoi in 2017. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1174.

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