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Open AccessArticle

Particulate Matter and Gaseous Pollutions in Three Metropolises along the Chinese Yangtze River: Situation and Implications

Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Joint International Research Laboratory of Climate and Environment Change, Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Key Laboratory for Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1102; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061102
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 28 May 2018
The situation of criteria atmospheric pollutants, including particulate matter and trace gases (SO2, NO2, CO and O3), over three metropolises (Chongqing, Wuhan, and Nanjing), representing the upstream, midstream and downstream portions of the Yangtze River Basin from September 2015 to August 2016 were analyzed. The maximum annual mean PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were 61.3 and 102.7 μg/m3 in Wuhan, while highest annual average gaseous pollutions occurred in Nanjing, with 49.6 and 22.9 ppb for 8 h O3 and NO2, respectively. Compared to a few years ago, SO2 and CO mass concentrations have dropped to well below the qualification standards, and the O3 and NO2 concentrations basically meet the requirements though occasionally is still high. In contrary, about 13%, 25%, 22% for PM2.5, and 4%, 17%, 15% for PM10 exceed the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard (CAAQS) Grade II. Particulate matter, especially PM2.5, is the most frequent major pollutant to poor air quality with 73%, 64% and 88% accounting for substandard days. Mean PM2.5 concentrations on PM2.5 episode days are 2–3 times greater than non-episode days. On the basis of calculation of PM2.5/PM10 and PM2.5/CO ratios, the enhanced particulate matter pollution on episode days is closely related to secondary aerosol production. Except for O3, the remaining five pollutants exhibit analogous seasonal patterns, with the highest magnitude in winter and lowest in summer. The results of back trajectories show that air pollution displays synergistic effects on local emissions and long range transport. O3 commonly demonstrated negative correlations with other pollutants, especially during winter, while moderate to strong positive correlation between particulate matter and NO2, SO2, CO were seen. Compared to pollutant substandard ratios over three megacities in eastern China (Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou), the situation in our studied second-tier cities are also severe. The results in this paper provide basic knowledge for pollution status of three cities along Chinese Yangtze River and are conductive to mitigating future negative air quality levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: fine particulate matter; trace gases; Yangtze River; metropolises fine particulate matter; trace gases; Yangtze River; metropolises
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Mao, M.; Zhang, X.; Yin, Y. Particulate Matter and Gaseous Pollutions in Three Metropolises along the Chinese Yangtze River: Situation and Implications. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1102.

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