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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Pregnancy Trimester-Specific Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Child Respiratory Health Outcomes in the First 2 Years of Life: Effect Modification by Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI

1
Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore 117549, Singapore
2
Department of Paediatrics, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
3
Department of Paediatrics, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore 229899, Singapore
4
MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit and NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
5
Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
6
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119074, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 996; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050996
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal and Child Health 2018)
Prenatal exposure to air pollution is associated with childhood respiratory health; however, no previous studies have examined maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) as a potential effect modifier. We investigated whether maternal pre-pregnancy BMI modified the association of trimester-specific air pollution divided into quartiles of exposure (Q1–4) on respiratory health in the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study (n = 953) in 2-year-old children. For episodes of wheezing, children of overweight/obese mothers and who were exposed to particulate matter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the first trimester had an adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) of 1.85 (1.23–2.78), 1.76 (1.08–2.85) and 1.90 (1.10–3.27) in quartile (Q) 2–4, with reference to Q1. This association is seen in the second trimester for bronchiolitis/bronchitis. The risk of ear infection in the first year of life was associated with exposure to PM2.5 in the first trimester with adjusted Odds Ratio (adjOR) (95% CI) = 7.64 (1.18–49.37), 11.37 (1.47–87.97) and 8.26 (1.13–60.29) for Q2–4, and similarly in the second year with adjOR (95% CI) = 3.28 (1.00–10.73) and 4.15 (1.05–16.36) for Q2–3. Prenatal exposure to air pollution has an enhanced impact on childhood respiratory health, and differs according to maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. View Full-Text
Keywords: pregnancy; trimester; respiratory; air pollution; pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) pregnancy; trimester; respiratory; air pollution; pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI)
MDPI and ACS Style

Soh, S.-E; Goh, A.; Teoh, O.H.; Godfrey, K.M.; Gluckman, P.D.; Shek, L.P.-C.; Chong, Y.-S. Pregnancy Trimester-Specific Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Child Respiratory Health Outcomes in the First 2 Years of Life: Effect Modification by Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 996.

AMA Style

Soh S-E, Goh A, Teoh OH, Godfrey KM, Gluckman PD, Shek LP-C, Chong Y-S. Pregnancy Trimester-Specific Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Child Respiratory Health Outcomes in the First 2 Years of Life: Effect Modification by Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(5):996.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Soh, Shu-E; Goh, Anne; Teoh, Oon Hoe; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Chong, Yap-Seng. 2018. "Pregnancy Trimester-Specific Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Child Respiratory Health Outcomes in the First 2 Years of Life: Effect Modification by Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15, no. 5: 996.

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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