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Effects of Internet and Smartphone Addictions on Depression and Anxiety Based on Propensity Score Matching Analysis

1
Department of Psychiatry, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 07061, Korea
2
Department of Statistics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea
3
Department of Statistics, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
4
Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul 06591, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050859
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 21 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet and Mobile Phone Addiction: Health and Educational Effects)
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Abstract

The associations of Internet addiction (IA) and smartphone addiction (SA) with mental health problems have been widely studied. We investigated the effects of IA and SA on depression and anxiety while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. In this study, 4854 participants completed a cross-sectional web-based survey including socio-demographic items, the Korean Scale for Internet Addiction, the Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale, and the subscales of the Symptom Checklist 90 Items-Revised. The participants were classified into IA, SA, and normal use (NU) groups. To reduce sampling bias, we applied the propensity score matching method based on genetics matching. The IA group showed an increased risk of depression (relative risk 1.207; p < 0.001) and anxiety (relative risk 1.264; p < 0.001) compared to NUs. The SA group also showed an increased risk of depression (relative risk 1.337; p < 0.001) and anxiety (relative risk 1.402; p < 0.001) compared to NCs. These findings show that both, IA and SA, exerted significant effects on depression and anxiety. Moreover, our findings showed that SA has a stronger relationship with depression and anxiety, stronger than IA, and emphasized the need for prevention and management policy of the excessive smartphone use. View Full-Text
Keywords: anxiety; depression; Internet addiction; smartphone addiction; propensity score anxiety; depression; Internet addiction; smartphone addiction; propensity score
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kim, Y.-J.; Jang, H.M.; Lee, Y.; Lee, D.; Kim, D.-J. Effects of Internet and Smartphone Addictions on Depression and Anxiety Based on Propensity Score Matching Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 859.

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