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Article

Effect of Sewage Irrigation on the CT-Measured Soil Pore Characteristics of a Clay Farmland in Northern China

1
Institute of Resources & Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454003, China
2
Nanjing Center, China Geological Survey, Nanjing 210016, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15051043
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
Sewage irrigation has a strong influence on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil. However, the effects of sewage irrigation on the pore characteristics of soil are not well understood. This study compares the effects of sewage irrigation and groundwater irrigation on computed tomography (CT)-measured pore parameters and examines the relationships between CT-measured pore parameters and soil physicochemical and microbial properties. Intact soil cores were collected from S1 irrigated with sewage for 25 years, S2 irrigated with sewage for 52 years, and CK irrigated with groundwater. Various soil pore characteristics were determined, including the total pore number, macropore number (>1 mm diam.), coarse mesopore number (0.264–1 mm diam.), total porosity, macroporosity, coarse mesoporosity, and circularity. The results indicated that sewage irrigation significantly affected soil pore number and porosity. Compared with S1 and S2, CK exhibited a higher average total pore number (91), macropore number (40), coarse mesopore number (51), total porosity (2.08%), macroporosity (1.90%), and coarse mesoporosity (0.18%) throughout the 50–350 mm layer. At depths of 200–350 mm, S2 exhibited the lowest average total pore number (33), macropore number (13), coarse mesopore number (21), total porosity (0.42%), macroporosity (0.35%), and coarse mesoporosity (0.07%) among the three sites. In addition, the average pore numbers and porosity at depths of 200–350 mm decreased with increasing sewage irrigation time. There were significant positive correlations between pore features (including pore numbers and porosity) and soil properties (phosphorus content and fungi numbers). Our results suggest that decreased macropore numbers and macroporosity in the sewage-irrigated farmland may strongly intensify the accumulation of metals and nutrients in the upper layer. The findings of this study are useful for understanding the negative effects of sewage irrigation on soil pore structure and are critical for developing sustainable strategies in agriculture. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil pore; computed tomography; soil properties; sewage irrigation soil pore; computed tomography; soil properties; sewage irrigation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Guo, X.; Zhao, T.; Liu, L.; Xiao, C.; He, Y. Effect of Sewage Irrigation on the CT-Measured Soil Pore Characteristics of a Clay Farmland in Northern China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1043. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15051043

AMA Style

Guo X, Zhao T, Liu L, Xiao C, He Y. Effect of Sewage Irrigation on the CT-Measured Soil Pore Characteristics of a Clay Farmland in Northern China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(5):1043. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15051043

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guo, Xiaoming, Tongqian Zhao, Lin Liu, Chunyan Xiao, and Yuxiao He. 2018. "Effect of Sewage Irrigation on the CT-Measured Soil Pore Characteristics of a Clay Farmland in Northern China" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15, no. 5: 1043. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15051043

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