# Advances in Residential Design Related to the Influence of Geomagnetism

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

- Non-significant values 0–100
- Weakly significant 100–200
- Strongly significant 200–1000
- Extremely significant +1000 nT

## 2. Status of the Situation

#### 2.1. The Geomagnetic Field

#### 2.2. The Soil

#### 2.3. Architectural Paths

## 3. Methodology

- Analysis of context and reference dosimetry on the influence of the geomagnetic field variability in the human being and its causes that may be related to the design of residential buildings.
- Selection of a representative case study to obtain data from the geomagnetic field at different points of a building.
- Selection of the appropriate measurement equipment for the definition of the measurement process and data collection.
- Analysis of results in the time domain.
- Analyses of results in frequency mode with the Fourier transform.
- Comparison of trends between the time and frequency modes.
- Discussion of statistical results.
- Discussion of significant architectural causes.
- Presentation of residential design schemes.

#### 3.1. Measurement Protocol

#### 3.2. Frequency Mode

#### 3.3. Summary

- Due to the effect of architectural design, by superimposing different uses and spaces between the different floors of the building.
- Due to the arrangement of ferromagnetic elements in the resistant structure, both in foundations and in the slabs of the building.
- Due to the geological disturbance of water streams, wells or faults, in such a way that in a space, one zone will be neutral, without significant alteration of the base value, and another one will present percentages of remarkable increase.

- Determine the places of prolonged stay, in particular the bedrooms, to compare the variation of measurements between the different dwellings.
- Carry out the measurement in all possible dwellings of the building, locating the measurement points of the 16 residential floors.
- Determine the duration (minimum 24 h) and the location of the measurement in each bedroom according to the overlapping uses of the entire building.
- Increase nocturnal measurements by increasing increments starting between 2 and 4 o’clock in the morning.
- Determine in one metre both the height and the distance of the measuring device to avoid influences of the magnetism contributed by the electrical installation, either on the upper or lower floor, by adjoining dwellings or by electrical wiring embedded in the enclosures.
- Determine different seasons of the year to compare rainy and dry seasons.

## 4. Case Study

#### 4.1. Geotechnical Case

- Layer 1: Anthropic fillings up to 1 m deep.
- Layer 2: Sandy-clay gravel from −1.00 m to −1.90 m.
- Layer 3: Clayey-sand gravel from −1.90 m to −2.50 m.
- Layer 4: Weathered marl (Tufa) from −2.50 m to −3.50 m.
- Layer 5: Grey marl substrate from −3.58 m to −3.96 m.

#### 4.2. Building’s Characteristics

^{2}with respect to the total surface area of 546 m

^{2}. The inner columns are made of steel of different dimensions and fire-proofed with sprayed concrete and are the full height of the building. The perimeter columns are made of reinforced concrete up to the reticular slabs of the ground floor. From that level, the columns are metallic until the last floor. The central communication core acts as a structural stiffener and consists of several 28 cm thick reinforced concrete walls. All the slabs are reticular with a 25 + 3 cm edge and an 80 × 80 cm grid, with reinforcing abacus around the columns in the form of solid slab with upper and lower reinforcement. These reinforcing abacuses have been drawn and superimposed on the layouts of the dwellings. The facilities, such as supply, sanitation, electricity, fire, heating, domestic hot water, natural and forced ventilation in basement floors, are the minimum required in a residential building. This description indicates the construction criteria that were widespread in residential buildings at that time, far from the higher standards currently required. However, concerns such as those raised in this study have not yet evolved or been taken into account in the architectural design.

## 5. Results

#### 5.1. Statistical Variables in Time Mode

- -
- Continuous Quantitative Variables (QTC):P0: The measurements of each dwelling are themselves a variable, which allows a descriptive method to be applied, and as a dependent variable, it can be compared with the independent variables. Within each dwelling, we have measurements every 0.1 seconds for 24 h.P9 FLOW: This variable is established based on the annual rainfall in the plot occupied by the building, according to the monthly and annual rainfall in Pamplona. A coefficient is assigned in each month, proportional to the mean rainfall.
- -
- Qualitative Variables (QL):

- -
- Nominal Qualitative and Dichotomous Variables (QLND). We create a binary response (0: yes/1: no) as follows:P1 ABACUS: Overlapping with structural abacus around the metallic columns of the reticular slab.P2 GARAGE: Overlapping of the garage space with any of the two basement floors.P3 MMET: Overlapping of metallic elements: diesel fuel tank, cold or hot water tank, heating boilers, and underground water pumping equipment.P7 DAY-NIGHT: 8–21 h as 0: Yes Night: 21–8 h as 1: No. In the database, all the measurements of the dwellings have been compared in the same time frame, assigning 12 h for the day and 12 h for the night.P10 FOUNDATION: Overlapping between the foundations of the building, either footings or braces, with the position of the NFA equipment. The code is 0: Yes, 1: No
- -
- Nominal Qualitative Polychotomous Variables (QLNP). These give several categories by variable and are as follows:P4 HEIGHT: Floor number in height: 0 to 16. From ground floor = 0 to floor 16 = 16.P5 SITUAC: Dwelling location at the floor of the building: five per floor: A: 0; B: 1; C: 2; D: 3; and E: 4.P6 MONTH: Month during the measurement: 0 to 11. January: 0; February 1; March: 2; April: 3; May: 4; June: 5; July: 6; August: 7; September: 8; October: 9; November: 10; and December: 11.P8 TIME OF DAY: From 0 to 23 h. The comparison was made in the database every 17.56 seconds for all the dwellings so that they coincide.

#### 5.2. Statistical Variables in Frequency Mode

- P1 ABACUS: Overlapping with structural abacus around the metallic columns of the reticular slab on each floor of the building.
- P2 GARAGE: Overlapping of garage space in any of the two basement floors.
- P3 MMET: Overlapping of metallic elements described and located in the two basement floors.
- P9 FLOW: Based on the annual rainfall in the plot occupied by the building, the statistical correlation is established, and the mean monthly values of all the months of the year are incorporated. Although the correlation coefficient is weak (−0.1891), less than 0.3, we cannot ignore that this variability of 1720 nT is greater than the reference value of 1000 nT, between the driest month (44,220 nT) and the wettest month (42,500 nT).
- P10 FOUNDATION: Overlapping with building foundation elements, either reinforced concrete footings or braces.

- ANOVA: Analysis of variance.
- Means: Comparison of Means.
- Corr: Correlation.

## 6. Discussion

## 7. Conclusions

- The arrangement of parking spaces in the basement floors of the building.
- The arrangement of metal masses in the basement floors of the building.
- Variability in storm water due to the flow of underground streams.

#### Limitations of the Study

## Acknowledgments

## Author Contributions

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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P0 | P1 | P2 | P3 | P4 | P5 | P6 | P7 | P8 | P9 | P10 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

QLND | QLND | QLND | QLNP | QLNP | QLNP | QLND | QLNP | QTC | QLND | |

QTC | Means | Means | Means | Means | Means | |||||

QTC | ANOVA | ANOVA | ANOVA | ANOVA | ||||||

QTC | Corr |

P0 | P1 | P2 | P3 | P4 | P5 | P9 | P10 | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

QLND | QLND | QLND | QLNP | QLNP | QTC | QLNP | ||||

QTC | Means | Means | Means | Means | ||||||

QTC | ANOVA | ANOVA | ||||||||

QTC | Corr |

P0–P1 | Two-Sample t Test with Equal Variances-P0, by (P1)—Reticular Slab Abacus | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Group | Obs | Mean | Std. Err | Std. Dev | 95% Conf. Interval | |

0 | 73,113 | 42.747 | 0.013 | 3.548 | 42.721 | 42.772 |

1 | 160,783 | 43.522 | 0.010 | 4.202 | 43.501 | 43.542 |

Combined | 233,898 | 43.279 | 0.008 | 4.025 | 43.263 | 43.296 |

Difference | −0.775 | 0.017 | −0.810 | −0.740 |

P0–P2 | Two-Sample t Test with Equal Variances-P0, by (P2)—Garages | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Group | Obs | Mean | Std. Err | Std. Dev | 95% Conf. Interval | |

0 | 77,352 | 44.315 | 0.013 | 3.768 | 44.289 | 44.342 |

1 | 156,546 | 42.767 | 0.010 | 4.050 | 42.747 | 42.787 |

Combined | 233,898 | 43.279 | 0.008 | 4.025 | 43.263 | 43.296 |

Difference | 1.548 | 0.017 | 1.513 | 1.582 |

P0–P3 | Two-Sample t Test with Equal Variances-P0, by (P3)—Metallic Masses | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Group | Obs | Mean | Std. Err | Std. Dev | 95% Conf. Interval | |

0 | 53,061 | 44.000 | 0.010 | 2.490 | 43.979 | 44.021 |

1 | 180,837 | 43.068 | 0.010 | 4.352 | 43.048 | 43.088 |

Combined | 233,898 | 43.279 | 0.008 | 4.025 | 43.263 | 43.296 |

Difference | 0.932 | 0.019 | 0.893 | 0.971 |

P0–P7 | Two-Sample t Test with Equal Variances-P0, by (P7)—Day-Night | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Group | Obs | Mean | Std. Err | Std. Dev | 95% Conf. Interval | |

0 | 116,021 | 43.262 | 0.011 | 2.490 | 43.979 | 44.021 |

1 | 117,877 | 43.297 | 0.011 | 4.352 | 43.048 | 43.088 |

Combined | 233,898 | 43.279 | 0.008 | 4.025 | 43.263 | 43.296 |

Difference | −0.035 | 0.016 | −0.067 | −0.002 |

P0–P10 | Two-Sample t Test with Equal Variances-P0, by (P10)—Foundation | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Group | Obs | Mean | Std. Err | Std. Dev | 95% Conf. Interval | |

0 | 107,586 | 43.010 | 0.010 | 3.427 | 42.989 | 43.030 |

1 | 126,312 | 43.509 | 0.012 | 4.459 | 43.484 | 43.534 |

Combined | 233,898 | 43.279 | 0.008 | 4.025 | 43.263 | 43.296 |

Difference | −0.499 | 0.016 | −0.531 | −0.466 |

Source | SS | df | MS | Number of obs | 233,898 | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Model | 135,554.172 | 1 | 135,554.172 | F (1,233,896) | 8673.69 | |

Residual | 3,655,372 | 0.892 | 15.6281976 | Prob > F | 0.0003 | |

Total | 3,790,927 | 0.0723 | 16.2076772 | R-squared | 0.0358 | |

Adj R-squared | 0.0358 | |||||

Root MSE | 3.9533 | |||||

P0 | Coef. | Std. Err. | t | P > |t| | 95% Conf. Interval | |

P9 | −3.531 | 0.0379 | −93.13 | 0.0003 | −3.605 | −3.456 |

cons | 46.993 | 0.0407 | 1154.52 | 0.0003 | 46.913 | 47.073 |

Variables | P2 | P3 | P9 |
---|---|---|---|

Variability | 1548 nT | 932 nT | 1720 nT |

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Glaria, F.; Arnedo, I.; Sánchez-Ostiz, A.
Advances in Residential Design Related to the Influence of Geomagnetism. *Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health* **2018**, *15*, 387.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020387

**AMA Style**

Glaria F, Arnedo I, Sánchez-Ostiz A.
Advances in Residential Design Related to the Influence of Geomagnetism. *International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health*. 2018; 15(2):387.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020387

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Glaria, Francisco, Israel Arnedo, and Ana Sánchez-Ostiz.
2018. "Advances in Residential Design Related to the Influence of Geomagnetism" *International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health* 15, no. 2: 387.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020387