“I Wouldn’t Be Friends with Someone If They Were Liking Too Much Rubbish”: A Qualitative Study of Alcohol Brands, Youth Identity and Social Media
2. Materials and Methods
3.1. Alcohol Brands and Portraying Identity
- “Just because it looks like a young like, not a young, but a person who is in their thirties or twenties would drink it before going out.”
- “Before going out, ok, so what do they like to do?”
- “It’s like, it looks like kind of girly nights in and stuff, like if they were going out like what you (Becky) said.”
- “So a girly drink?”
- “Yeah.” (Female, 14–15, ABC1)
“Men will drink beer, our age. This is more girly sort of stuff.”(Karen, Female, 16–17, ABC1)
- “You are seen drinking vodka it’s sort of like it’s like you are trying to set the whole binge drinking vibe aye, but if you are drinking Bud.”
- “Going out to get drunk.”
- “Budweiser it’s not like you are.”
- “Just relaxing eh.”
- “Yeah it’s not like you are, yeah it’s not like you are trying to get drunk.”
- “More laid back.”
- “Yeah it’s a different sort of drink.” (Males, 14–15, ABC1).
3.2. Using Alcohol Brands to Fit in
- “I don’t like WKD.”
- “It’s the same strength as beer but tastes nicer”
- “So who would drink WKD then?”
- “Girls.” (Male, 14–15, C2DE)
- “It’s poof juice, that’s what it’s called, poof juice.”
- “Because it’s the weakest kind of drink.” (Females, 16–17, C2DE).
- “If you’ve got a young girl I’d say. If you are a parent then you’d give your daughter WKD.”
- “Say its New Year and they are not old enough to.”
- “So it’s the sort of thing parents might buy their kids.”
- “Aye, to get them into the game.” (Males, 14–15, C2DE).
“If you go out and drink it (WKD) on the streets you will either get leathered for being a gimp, or you will just get the piss taken straight out of you.”(Rachel, Female, 16–17, C2DE)
3.3. The Risks of Associating with the Wrong Brands on Social Media
- “I wouldn’t be friends with someone if they were liking too much rubbish.”
- “All my friends will be able to see what I like.”
- “Yeah, so that’s even more like annoying because they can comment on that if they want to as well.” (Females, 16–17, C2DE).
“Do you know what’s bad, I’ve liked that page … I think it I just liked it because of the colour of the drink.”(Paula, Female, 16–17, C2DE)
“It was the bottles and the colours and that was the first thing I ever got pissed on”(Paula, Female, 16–17, C2DE)
- “WKD for girls is alright.”
- “If I see a guy on Facebook posting a picture with one of them (WKD), I’d delete him.”
- “You wouldn’t want to be caught drinking that if you were a guy.”
- “Pelters thrown at you.”
- “So that would be social suicide?”
- “That’s deleting your Facebook account sort of stuff.”
- “You wouldn’t want to put a picture up of a bottle of WKD.” (Male, 14–15, C2DE).
- “You see pictures with folk with a bottle or a can of Bud on Facebook all the time.”
- “That’s normal.” (Males, 14–15, C2DE).
- “I think it’s quite good—what you can do with it.”
- “Maybe if people have parties to see what they can do with drink.” (Females, 16–17, ABC1).
- “If you are into football then that page is pretty attractive … you’d be more likely to engage with it.”
- “Yeah, that would be more acceptable than posting on WKD.” (Males, 16–17, C2DE)
- “Budweiser sponsor the FA Cup, I’ve just downloaded the app so I’d probably like their page as well to keep up to date with things.”
- “Would this be the sort of thing you would share with your friends?”
- “Yeah, probably. They’ll be able to see it if I like it but sometimes I’ll share things if they’re football-related” (Male, 14–15, C2DE).
Limitations and Scope for Future Work
Conflicts of Interest
- To begin with, what do you understand by the term ‘social media’?
- Do any of you use social media? How often?
- What is the main reason(s) for using social media?
- Which sites do you use and why do you think they are popular?
- Do you ever go on commercial pages? What sort of things do you look at?
- Do you ever ‘like’ commercial pages or follow commercial tweets? What pages/tweets? Why?
- Do you ever go on alcohol brand pages? What brands? Why?
- Do you ever ‘like’ alcohol brand pages?
- Do you see a lot of alcohol marketing online? What have you seen? What do you think about this?
- Do you ever go on ‘fan’ pages (unofficial alcohol pages)? What pages? Why?
- Do you feel there is a difference between official brand pages and ‘fan’ pages?
- Do you or your friends ever talk about alcohol brands online? If so, how and where?
- Do you ever talk about specific brands? What brands?
- Have you ever seen anyone posting pictures of alcohol brands or alcohol use on their profile? Any examples? How often?
- Reactions to specific examples of online alcohol marketing on SNS
- Have any of you seen these pages before?
- What sort of person would go on this page?
- Do participants find any of the examples appealing? If so, why?
- Could you rank the SNS pages in order from most appealing to least appealing? Why are some appealing and others not? What would make you likely to go on this page (competitions, giveaways etc.)?
- Can you think of anything that you particularly liked or that you particularly remember? What was it that you liked about it?
- Are there any types of products for which the packaging stands out? What? Why? What features?
- Are there any types of products where a great deal of effort has been put into the packaging? What? Why? What features?
- Do you think packaging is important for alcohol brands? Why?
- Can you describe any examples of alcohol packaging for me? Any specific brands which come to mind?
- Have you seen any of these items before? Where? What situation?
- What springs to mind when you see this pack? What words would you use to describe this pack?
- Imagine this pack is a person—can you describe them? What do they look like/wear/like to do?
- Order from most appealing to least appealing:
- Discuss order/reasoning behind order. Target products—why X is different from Y
- What is it you like/dislike about them?
- What are the good/bad features?
- Order for someone like me/not like me
- Order from pleasant taste/unpleasant taste
- Order from most harmful (strongest)/least harmful (weakest).
- Choose your favourite pack. Why have you chosen this?
- Choose your least favourite pack. Why have you chosen this?
- What is it about the pack that makes you feel that way?
- Have any of you noticed any web addresses, Facebook or Twitter addresses on the packaging?
- Would you ever be likely to go to these addresses? Why/why not?
- Do any of you own smartphones?
- Do any of you know what QR codes are?
- Have you seen these before? Where?
- Have any of you used QR codes before?
- Have you ever seen them on alcohol packaging?
- What do you think of this type of technology?
- Do you find any of the examples appealing? What? Why?
- Would you be likely to scan these codes in the future? Why? (curiosity, competitions etc.) Who do you think would?
- Do any if you know what augmented reality is? Have any of you used Blippar, Augment or other A.R. apps before?
- Have you seen these before? Where?
- Have you ever scanned anything with A.R packaging?
- Have you ever seen them on alcohol packaging?
- What do you think of this type of technology?
- Do you find any of the examples appealing? What? Why?
- Would you be likely to scan this packaging in the future?
- Who do you think would be likely to use this kind of technology? Why?
- Newbury-Birch, D.; Gilvarry, E.; McArdle, P.; Ramesh, V.; Stewart, S.; Walker, J.; Avery, L.; Beyer, F.; Brown, N.; Jackson, K.; et al. Impact of Alcohol Consumption on Young People: A Review of Reviews; Institute of Health and Society: Newcastle, UK, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development). Doing Better for Children. Report by the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD); OECD: Paris, France, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Home Office. Underage Drinking: Findings from the 2004 Offending, Crime and Justice Survey; The Stationery Office: London, UK, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- Hibell, B.; Guttormsson, U.; Ahlström, S.; Balakireva, O.; Bjarnason, T.; Kokkevi, A.; Kraus, L. The 2007 ESPAD Report: Substance Use among Students in 35 European Countries; The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN) and the Pompidou Group of the Council of Europe: Stockholm, Sweden, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Department of Health. Hospital Episode Statistics. Department of Health. Information Centre: Knowledge for Care. 2007. Available online: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Statistics/HospitalEpisodeStatistics/index.htm (accessed on 12 October 2017).
- Scottish Government. The Societal Cost of Alcohol Misuse in Scotland for 2007; The Stationery Office: Edinburgh, UK, 2010.
- Bonomo, Y.A.; Bowes, G.; Coffey, C.; Carlin, J.B.; Patton, G.C. Teenage drinking and the onset of alcohol dependence: A cohort study over seven years. Addiction 2004, 99, 1520–1528. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- ONS (Office for National Statistics). General Lifestyle Survey and Opinions and Lifestyle Survey; Office for National Statistics: London, UK, 2014.
- Fuller, E. Smoking, Drinking and Drug Use among Young People in England in 2014; Health and Social Care Information Centre: Leeds, UK, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Health & Social Care Information Centre. Statistics on Alcohol, England, 2016; HSCIC: Leeds, UK, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Department of Health. UK Chief Medical Officers’ Alcohol Guidelines Review. Summary of the Proposed New Guidelines; Department of Health: Hongkong, China, 2015.
- McCusker Centre for Action on Alcohol and Youth. Alcohol and Young People: Drinking Patterns and Harms; Curtin University: Bentley, Australia, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- WHO (World Health Organisation). Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health 2014; WHO: Geneva, Switzerland, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Griffin, C.; Szmigin, I.T.; Hackley, C.; Mistral, W.; Szmigin, I. “Every time I do it I absolutely annihilate myself”: Loss of (self)-consciousness and loss of memory in young people’s drinking narratives. Sociology 2009, 43, 457–476. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Griffin, C.; Szmigin, I.T.; Hackley, C.; Mistral, W.; Bengry-Howell, A. The allure of belonging: Young people’s drinking practices and collective identification. In Identity in the 21st Century: New Trends in Changing Times; Wetherell, M., Ed.; Palgrave: London, UK, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Hill, A.J. Nutrition and behaviour group symposium on ‘evolving attitudes to food and nutrition’: Developmental issues in attitudes to food and diet. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 2001, 61, 259–266. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Wills, W.J. Food and eating practices during the transition from secondary school to new social contexts. J. Youth Stud. 2005, 8, 97–110. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Belk, R. Digital consumption and the extended self. J. Mark. Manag. 2014, 30, 1101–1118. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Croghan, R.; Griffin, C.; Hunter, J.; Phoenix, A. Style failure: Consumption, identity and social exclusion. J. Youth Stud. 2006, 9, 463–478. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Casswell, S. Alcohol brands in young peoples’ everyday lives. Alcohol Alcohol. 2004, 39, 471–476. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Wooten, D.B. From labelling possessions to possessing labels: Ridicule and socialization among adolescents. J. Consum. Res. 2006, 33, 188–198. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Belk, R.W. Possessions and the extended self. J. Consum. Res. 1988, 15, 139–168. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Elliott, R.; Wattanasuwan, K. Brands as symbolic resources for the construction of identity. Int. J. Advert. 1998, 17, 131–144. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Arvidsson, A. Brands: A Critical Perspective. J. Consum. Cult. 2005, 5, 235–258. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Goodwin, I.; Lyons, A.C.; Griffin, C.; McCreanor, T. Ending Up Online: Interrogating Mediated Youth Drinking Cultures. In Mediated Youth Cultures: The Internet, Belonging, and New Cultural Configurations; Bennett, A., Robards, B., Eds.; Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke, UK, 2014; pp. 59–74. [Google Scholar]
- Holt, D. Why do brands cause trouble? A dialectical theory of consumer culture and branding. J. Consum. Res. 2002, 29, 70–90. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lury, C. Brand as assemblage. J. Cult. Econ. 2009, 2, 67–82. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Carah, N.; Brodmerkel, S.; Hernandez, L. Brands and Sociality: Alcohol Branding, Drinking Culture and Facebook. Convergence 2014, 20, 259–275. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Lee, M.S.; Motion, J.; Conroy, D. Anti-consumption and brand avoidance. J. Bus. Res. 2009, 62, 169–180. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Stead, M.; McDermott, L.; MacKintosh, A.M.; Adamson, A. Why healthy eating is bad for young people’s health: Identity, belonging and food. Soc. Sci. Med. 2011, 72, 1131–1139. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Chaplin, L.N.; John, D.R. The development of self-brand connections in children and adolescents. J. Consum. Res. 2005, 32, 119–129. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hogg, M.K.; Bruce, M.; Hill, A.J. Fashion brand preferences among consumers. Int. J. Retail Distrib. Manag. 1998, 17, 73–104. [Google Scholar]
- Grant, I.C.; Hassan, L.; Hastings, G.; MacKintosh, A.M.; Eadie, D. The influence of branding on adolescent smoking behaviour: Exploring the mediating role of image and attitudes. Int. J. Non-Profit Volunt. Sect. Mark. 2008, 13, 275–285. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Moodie, C.; Ford, A.; MacKintosh, A.M.; Purves, R. Are all cigarettes just the same? Female’s perception of slim, coloured, aromatized and capsule cigarettes. Health Educ. Res. 2015, 30, 1–12. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Ford, A.; Moodie, C.; Purves, R.; MacKintosh, A.M. Adolescent girls and young adult women’s perceptions of superslims cigarette packaging: A qualitative study. BMJ Open. 2015, 6. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Casswell, S.; Zhang, J.F. Impact of liking for advertising and brand allegiance on drinking and alcohol-related aggression: A longitudinal study. Addiction 1998, 93, 1209–1217. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Lin, E.Y.; Casswell, S.; You, R.Q.; Huckle, T. Engagement with alcohol marketing and early brand allegiance in relation to early years of drinking. Addict. Res. Theory 2012, 20, 329–338. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- McCreanor, T.; Lyons, A.; Goodwin, I.; Moewaka Barnes, H.; Griffin, C.; Hutton, F. Youth drinking cultures, social networking and alcohol marketing: Implications for public health. Crit. Public Health 2013, 23, 110–120. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Moewaka Barnes, H.; McCreanor, T.; Goodwin, I.; Lyons, A.; Griffin, C.; Hutton, F. Alcohol and social media: Drinking and drunkenness while online. Crit. Public Health 2016, 26, 62–76. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Winpenny, E.M.; Marteau, T.M.; Nolte, E. Exposure of Children and Adolescents to Alcohol Marketing on Social Media Websites. Alcohol Alcohol. 2014, 49, 154–159. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Mart, S.; Mergendoller, J.; Simon, M. Alcohol promotion on Facebook. J. Glob. Drug Policy Pract. 2009, 3, 1–8. [Google Scholar]
- Mosher, J. Joe Camel in a bottle: Diageo, the Smirnoff brand, and the transformation of the youth alcohol market. Am. J. Public Health 2012, 102, 56–63. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Carah, N. Like, Comment Share: Alcohol Brand Activity on Facebook; Foundation for Alcohol Research and Education, University of Queensland: Brisbane, Australia, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Nicholls, J. Everyday, Everywhere: Alcohol Marketing and Social Media—Current Trends. Alcohol Alcohol. 2012, 47, 486–493. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Alhabash, S.; McAlister, A.R.; Quilliam, E.T.; Richards, J.I.; Lou, C. Alcohol’s getting a bit more social: When alcohol marketing messages on Facebook increase young adults’ intentions to imbibe. Mass Commun. Soc. 2015, 18, 350–371. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hoffman, E.W.; Pinkleton, B.E.; Weintraub Austin, E.; Reyes-Velazquez, W. Exploring college students’ use of general and alcohol-related social media and their associations with alcohol-related behaviors. J. Am. Coll. Health 2014, 62, 328–335. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Lobstein, T.; Landon, J.; Thornton, N.; Jernigan, D. The commercial use of digital media to market alcohol products: A systematic review. Addiction 2017, 112, 21–27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Critchlow, N.; Moodie, C.; Bauld, L.; Bonner, A.; Hastings, G. Awareness of, and participation with, digital alcohol marketing, and the association with frequency of high episodic drinking among young adults. Drugs Educ. Prev. Policy 2015. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Moreno, M.A.; Briner, L.R.; Williams, A.; Brockman, L.; Walker, L.; Christakis, D.A. A content analysis of displayed alcohol references on a social networking web site. J. Adolesc. Health 2010, 47, 168–175. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Advertising Standards Authority. Children and Advertising on Social Media Websites. ASA Compliance Survey; Advertising Standards Authority: London, UK, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Atkinson, A.M.; Ross-Houle, K.M.; Begley, E.; Sumnall, H. An exploration of alcohol advertising on social networking sites: An analysis of content, interactions and young people’s perspectives. Addict. Res. Theory 2016, 25, 91–102. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Carah, N. Algorithmic brands: A decade of brand experiments with mobile and social media. New Media Soc. 2015. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Buckingham, D. Youth, Identity, and Digital Media; MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Moraes, C.; Michaelidou, N.; Meneses, R.W. The use of Facebook to promote drinking among young consumers. J. Mark. Manag. 2014, 30, 1377–1401. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Goodwin, I.; Griffin, C.; Lyons, A.; McCreanor, T.; Moewaka-Barnes, H. Precarious popularity: Facebook drinking photos the attention economy, and the regime of the branded self. Soc. Media Soc. 2016, 1, 1–13. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- McCreanor, T.; Greenaway, A.; Moewaka Barnes, H.; Borell, S.; Gregory, A. Youth identity formation and contemporary alcohol marketing. Crit. Public Health 2005, 15, 251–262. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cover, R. Performing and undoing identity online: Social networking, identity theories and the incompatibility of online profiles and friendship regimes. Converg. Int. J. Res. New Media Technol. 2012, 18, 177–193. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ridout, B. Facebook, social media and its application to problem drinking among college students. Curr. Opin. Psychol. 2016, 9, 83–87. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Atkinson, A.M.; Sumnall, H.R. ‘If I don’t look good, it just doesn’t go up’: A qualitative study of young women’s drinking cultures and practices on Social Network Sites. Int. J. Drug Policy 2016, 38, 50–62. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Moreno, M.A.; D’Angelo, J.; Whitehill, J.M. Social media and alcohol: Summary of research, intervention ideas and future study directions. Media Commun. 2016, 4, 50–59. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Griffiths, R.; Casswell, S. Intoxigenic digital spaces? Youth, social networking sites and alcohol marketing. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2010, 29, 525–530. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- MacKintosh, A.; Hastings, G.; Hughes, K.; Wheeler, C.; Watson, J.; Inglis, J. Adolescent drinking—The role of designer drinks. Health Educ. 1997, 6, 213–224. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Greene, S.; Hill, M. Researching Children’s Experience: Methods and Methodological Issues. In Researching Children’s Experience: Approaches and Methods; Greene, S., Hogan, D., Eds.; Sage: London, UK, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Market Research Society. Occupational Groupings. Available online: https://www.mrs.org.uk/intelligence/occupational_groupings (accessed on 3 January 2018).
- Bamford, V. Britain’s 100 Biggest Alcohol Brands 2013. Grocer 2013, 52–68. [Google Scholar]
- Braun, V.; Clarke, V. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qual. Res. Psychol. 2006, 3, 77–101. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lyons, A.C.; Willott, S.A. Alcohol consumption, gender identities and women’s changing social positions. Sex Roles 2008, 59, 694–712. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Willott, S.; Lyons, A.C. Consuming male identities: Masculinities, gender relations and alcohol consumption in Aotearoa New Zealand. J. Community Appl. Soc. Psychol. 2012, 22, 330–345. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- De Visser, R.O.; Smith, J.A. Alcohol consumption and masculine identity among young men. Psychol. Health 2007, 22, 595–614. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Babor, T.; Caetano, R.; Casswell, S.; Edwards, G.; Giesbrecht, N.; Graham, K.; Grube, J.; Hill, L.; Holder, H.; Homel, R.; et al. Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity: Research and Public Policy; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Valentine, G. Exploring children and young people’s narratives of identity. Geoforum 2000, 31, 257–267. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lyons, A.C.; Goodwin, I.; Griffin, C.; McCreanor, T.; Moewaka Barnes, H. Facebook and the fun of drinking photos: Reproducing gendered regimes of power. Soc. Media Soc. 2016, 2, 1–13. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gigerenzer, G. Gut Feelings: The Intelligence of the Unconscious; Viking: New York, NY, USA, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Jackson, M.; Hastings, G.; Wheeler, C.; Eadie, D.; MacKintosh, A.M. Marketing alcohol to young people: Implications for industry regulation and research policy. Addiction 2000, 95, 597–608. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Griffin, C. Branded Consumption and Social Identification: Young People and Alcohol Study, 2006–2007; Computer File; UK Data Service: Colchester, UK, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Hastings, G.; Brooks, O.; Stead, M.; Angus, K.; Anker, T.; Farrell, T. Alcohol advertising: The last chance saloon. BMJ 2010, 340, 184–186. [Google Scholar]
- Carrotte, E.R.; Dietze, P.M.; Wright, C.J.; Lim, M.S. Who ‘likes’ alcohol? Young Australians’ engagement with alcohol marketing via social media and related alcohol consumption patterns. Aust. N. Z. J. Public Health 2016, 40, 474–479. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Jernigan, D.H.; Rushman, A.E. Measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing on social networking sites: Challenges and prospects. J. Public Health Policy 2014, 35, 91–104. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Chou, H.G.; Edge, N. “They are happier and having better lives than I am”: The impact of using Facebook on perceptions of others’ lives. Cyberpsychol. Behav. Soc. Netw. 2012, 15, 117–121. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Alcohol Focus Scotland. Alcohol and Young People; Alcohol Focus Scotland: Glasgow, UK, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Roper, S.; La Niece, C. The importance of brands in the lunch-box choices of low income British schoolchildren. J. Consum. Behav. 2009, 8, 84–99. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chapman, G.; Maclean, H. Junk food and healthy food: Meanings of food in adolescent women’s culture. J. Nutr. Educ. 1993, 25, 108–113. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wong, E. From Focus Group to ‘Friend’ Groups. Forbes. 2010. Available online: https://www.forbes.com/sites/elainewong/2010/11/19/from-focus-groups-to-friend-groups/#780e606f3443 (accessed on 17 January 2018).
|Group Number||Location||Gender||Age||Socio-Economic Group 1|
|Visited Several Times a Day||Visited Once a Day||Visited Several Times a Week||Visited Once a Week||Visited Once a Month||Visited Less than Once a Month|
|Brand Name||Type of Beverage||% ABV||Facebook Fans (Likes)||Twitter Followers||YouTube Subscribers|
|WKD||Pre-mixed drink (alcopop)||4||284,944||11,200||n/a|
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Purves, R.I.; Stead, M.; Eadie, D. “I Wouldn’t Be Friends with Someone If They Were Liking Too Much Rubbish”: A Qualitative Study of Alcohol Brands, Youth Identity and Social Media. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 349. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020349
Purves RI, Stead M, Eadie D. “I Wouldn’t Be Friends with Someone If They Were Liking Too Much Rubbish”: A Qualitative Study of Alcohol Brands, Youth Identity and Social Media. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(2):349. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020349Chicago/Turabian Style
Purves, Richard I., Martine Stead, and Douglas Eadie. 2018. "“I Wouldn’t Be Friends with Someone If They Were Liking Too Much Rubbish”: A Qualitative Study of Alcohol Brands, Youth Identity and Social Media" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15, no. 2: 349. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020349