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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 331;

A Comparative Analysis of Climate-Risk and Extreme Event-Related Impacts on Well-Being and Health: Policy Implications

School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD, UK
Institute of Energy Policy and Research (IEPRe), Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN), Kajang 43000, Malaysia
Department of Urban Studies & Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, MA 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA
Instituto de Ecología y Ciencias Ambientales (IECA), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la República, Montevideo 11400, Uruguay
Department of Biology & CESAM Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Department of Sociology, University of Vienna, Rooseveltplatz 2, 1090 Vienna, Austria
Center for Food Security Studies (CFSS), College of Development Studies, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa 150129, Ethiopia
Cities Research Institute, Griffith University, Nathan Campus, 170 Kessels Road, Nathan, QLD 4111, Australia
Research and Transfer Center,“Sustainability and Climate Change Management”, Faculty of Life Sciences, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Ulmenliet 20, 21033 Hamburg, Germany
Facultad de Medicina—Instituto Boliviano de Biología de Altura (IBBA), Universidad Mayor de San Andrés (UMSA), Unidad de Cambio Climático, Ambiente y Salud, Claudio Sanjinez S/N, Miraflores, La Paz, Bolivia
Montpellier Research in Management, Montpellier Business School, 34000 Montpellier, France, [email protected]
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 December 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Human Health)
PDF [595 KB, uploaded 14 February 2018]


There are various climate risks that are caused or influenced by climate change. They are known to have a wide range of physical, economic, environmental and social impacts. Apart from damages to the physical environment, many climate risks (climate variability, extreme events and climate-related hazards) are associated with a variety of impacts on human well-being, health, and life-supporting systems. These vary from boosting the proliferation of vectors of diseases (e.g., mosquitos), to mental problems triggered by damage to properties and infrastructure. There is a great variety of literature about the strong links between climate change and health, while there is relatively less literature that specifically examines the health impacts of climate risks and extreme events. This paper is an attempt to address this knowledge gap, by compiling eight examples from a set of industrialised and developing countries, where such interactions are described. The policy implications of these phenomena and the lessons learned from the examples provided are summarised. Some suggestions as to how to avert the potential and real health impacts of climate risks are made, hence assisting efforts to adapt to a problem whose impacts affect millions of people around the world. All the examples studied show some degree of vulnerability to climate risks regardless of their socioeconomic status and need to increase resilience against extreme events. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate-change adaptation; extreme events; health; socioeconomic issues; vulnerability; adaptive capacity; environmental risk; adaptation strategies climate-change adaptation; extreme events; health; socioeconomic issues; vulnerability; adaptive capacity; environmental risk; adaptation strategies

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Leal Filho, W.; Al-Amin, A.Q.; Nagy, G.J.; Azeiteiro, U.M.; Wiesböck, L.; Ayal, D.Y.; Morgan, E.A.; Mugabe, P.; Aparicio-Effen, M.; Fudjumdjum, H.; Chiappetta Jabbour, C.J. A Comparative Analysis of Climate-Risk and Extreme Event-Related Impacts on Well-Being and Health: Policy Implications. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 331.

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