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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Blood Lead Levels and Risk Factors for Lead Exposure in a Pediatric Population in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
Children’s Hospital #2, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 93;
Received: 9 December 2017 / Revised: 30 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 January 2018 / Published: 8 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Children’s Environmental Health)
PDF [712 KB, uploaded 8 January 2018]


Although lead recycling activities are a known risk factor for elevated blood levels in South East Asia, little is known regarding the prevalence of and risk factors for elevated blood lead levels (BLL) among the general pediatric population in Vietnam. This study is a cross-sectional evaluation of 311 children from Children’s Hospital #2 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Capillary blood lead testing was performed using the LeadCare II. Mean BLLs were 4.97 μg/dL (Standard Deviation (SD) 5.50), with 7% of the participants having levels greater than 10 μg/dL. Living in Bing Duong province (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.4–5.6.1) or the Dong Nai province (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.1) and having an age greater than 12 months (OR 6.0, 95% CI 3.1–11.8) were associated with higher BLLs. The prevalence of elevated BLLs in Vietnam is consistent with other SE Asian countries. Mean BLLs in Ho Chi Minh City are markedly less than those seen in a separate study of children living near lead recycling activities. Additional evaluation is necessary to better detail potential risk factors if screening is to be implemented within Vietnam. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead; child; environmental exposure; Vietnam lead; child; environmental exposure; Vietnam

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Havens, D.; Pham, M.H.; Karr, C.J.; Daniell, W.E. Blood Lead Levels and Risk Factors for Lead Exposure in a Pediatric Population in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 93.

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