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Article

Blood Lead Levels and Risk Factors for Lead Exposure in a Pediatric Population in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

1
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
2
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
3
Children’s Hospital #2, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010093
Received: 9 December 2017 / Revised: 30 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 January 2018 / Published: 8 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Children’s Environmental Health)
Although lead recycling activities are a known risk factor for elevated blood levels in South East Asia, little is known regarding the prevalence of and risk factors for elevated blood lead levels (BLL) among the general pediatric population in Vietnam. This study is a cross-sectional evaluation of 311 children from Children’s Hospital #2 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Capillary blood lead testing was performed using the LeadCare II. Mean BLLs were 4.97 μg/dL (Standard Deviation (SD) 5.50), with 7% of the participants having levels greater than 10 μg/dL. Living in Bing Duong province (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.4–5.6.1) or the Dong Nai province (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.1) and having an age greater than 12 months (OR 6.0, 95% CI 3.1–11.8) were associated with higher BLLs. The prevalence of elevated BLLs in Vietnam is consistent with other SE Asian countries. Mean BLLs in Ho Chi Minh City are markedly less than those seen in a separate study of children living near lead recycling activities. Additional evaluation is necessary to better detail potential risk factors if screening is to be implemented within Vietnam. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead; child; environmental exposure; Vietnam lead; child; environmental exposure; Vietnam
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MDPI and ACS Style

Havens, D.; Pham, M.H.; Karr, C.J.; Daniell, W.E. Blood Lead Levels and Risk Factors for Lead Exposure in a Pediatric Population in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 93. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010093

AMA Style

Havens D, Pham MH, Karr CJ, Daniell WE. Blood Lead Levels and Risk Factors for Lead Exposure in a Pediatric Population in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(1):93. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010093

Chicago/Turabian Style

Havens, Deborah, Minh H. Pham, Catherine J. Karr, and William E. Daniell 2018. "Blood Lead Levels and Risk Factors for Lead Exposure in a Pediatric Population in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15, no. 1: 93. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010093

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