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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 154;

Brief Report: Lead Levels in Selected Electronic Cigarettes from Canada and the United States

Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Health Behavior, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Studies on Heavy Metals and Health)
Full-Text   |   PDF [504 KB, uploaded 19 January 2018]   |  


Few published studies have investigated the presence of lead in the e-liquid of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Lead inhalation is associated with increased risk of stroke, heart disease, and other diseases. This study used a novel application of graphite furnace technology to compare the concentration of lead between e-liquids of different packaging and product designs using e-liquids that are or were commercially available in the United States and Canada. Eleven nicotine-free disposable ENDS devices and 12 bottled refill solutions that contained nicotine were purchased from retailers in Canada and the United States between 2015 and 2017. E-liquids extracted from the disposable products and individual containers were analyzed for lead content by graphite furnace using atomic absorption detection. The lead concentration of open-wick ENDS devices ranged from 25.2 ppb to 838.4 ppb, with a standard deviation of 187.4 ppb. None of the bottled e-liquids contained quantifiable levels of lead. This study found that quantifiable levels of lead are present in certain disposable e-cigarette devices, and there is evidence from this study that the design of ENDS devices may contribute to lead exposure. These findings suggest that lead testing should be incorporated into future chemical analyses of ENDS devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: e-cigarette; e-liquids; lead e-cigarette; e-liquids; lead

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Dunbar, Z.R.; Das, A.; O’Connor, R.J.; Goniewicz, M.L.; Wei, B.; Travers, M.J. Brief Report: Lead Levels in Selected Electronic Cigarettes from Canada and the United States. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 154.

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