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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(8), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14080889

Estimated Maternal Pesticide Exposure from Drinking Water and Heart Defects in Offspring

1
Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Sciences, University of Texas School of Public Health, Houston, TX 77030, USA
2
Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas School of Public Health, Houston, TX 77030, USA
3
Birth Defects Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch, Texas Department of State Health Services, Austin, TX 78714, USA
4
Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
5
Center for Health Effects of Environmental Contamination, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
6
National Center for Environmental Assessment, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
7
Community Epidemiology and Health Planning Unit, Cook County Department of Public Health, Oak Forest Health Center, Oak Forest, IL 60452, USA
8
Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas, Southwestern, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
9
Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
10
Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, USA
11
Division of Public Health, Birth Defects Monitoring Program, State Center for Health Statistics, Raleigh, NC 27699, USA
12
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
13
National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
14
Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children’s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
15
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University at Albany School of Public Health, Albany, NY 12144, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Full-Text   |   PDF [326 KB, uploaded 8 August 2017]

Abstract

Our objective was to examine the relationship between estimated maternal exposure to pesticides in public drinking water and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHD). We used mixed-effects logistic regression to analyze data from 18,291 nonsyndromic cases with heart defects from the Texas Birth Defects Registry and 4414 randomly-selected controls delivered in Texas from 1999 through 2005. Water district-level pesticide exposure was estimated by linking each maternal residential address to the corresponding public water supply district’s measured atrazine levels. We repeated analyses among independent subjects from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (1620 nonsyndromic cases with heart defects and 1335 controls delivered from 1999 through 2005). No positive associations were observed between high versus low atrazine level and eight CHD subtypes or all included heart defects combined. These findings should be interpreted with caution, in light of potential misclassification and relatively large proportions of subjects with missing atrazine data. Thus, more consistent and complete monitoring and reporting of drinking water contaminants will aid in better understanding the relationships between pesticide water contaminants and birth defects. View Full-Text
Keywords: pesticide; congenital heart defect; public drinking water; Texas; birth defects pesticide; congenital heart defect; public drinking water; Texas; birth defects
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Kim, J.; Swartz, M.D.; Langlois, P.H.; Romitti, P.A.; Weyer, P.; Mitchell, L.E.; Luben, T.J.; Ramakrishnan, A.; Malik, S.; Lupo, P.J.; Feldkamp, M.L.; Meyer, R.E.; Winston, J.J.; Reefhuis, J.; Blossom, S.J.; Bell, E.; Agopian, A.J.; the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Estimated Maternal Pesticide Exposure from Drinking Water and Heart Defects in Offspring. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 889.

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