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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(8), 875; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14080875

Unintentional Child and Adolescent Drowning Mortality from 2000 to 2013 in 21 Countries: Analysis of the WHO Mortality Database

1,†
,
1,†
,
2
and
3,*
1
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, 110 Xiangya Road, Changsha 410078, China
2
Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
3
Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, 110 Xiangya Road, Changsha 410078, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David A. Sleet
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Injury Prevention 2017)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4056 KB, uploaded 4 August 2017]   |  

Abstract

Limited research considers change over time for drowning mortality among individuals under 20 years of age, or the sub-cause (method) of those drownings. We assessed changes in under-20 drowning mortality from 2000 to 2013 among 21 countries. Age-standardized drowning mortality data were obtained through the World Health Organization (WHO) Mortality Database. Twenty of the 21 included countries experienced a reduction in under-20 drowning mortality rate between 2000 and 2013, with decreases ranging from −80 to −13%. Detailed analysis by drowning method presented large variations in the cause of drowning across countries. Data were missing due to unspecified methods in some countries but, when known, drowning in natural bodies of water was the primary cause of child and adolescent drowning in Poland (56–92%), Cuba (53–81%), Venezuela (43–56%), and Japan (39–60%), while drowning in swimming pools and bathtubs was common in the United States (26–37%) and Japan (28–39%), respectively. We recommend efforts to raise the quality of drowning death reporting systems and discuss prevention strategies that may reduce child and adolescent drowning risk, both in individual countries and globally. View Full-Text
Keywords: drowning; child; mortality; trend drowning; child; mortality; trend
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Wu, Y.; Huang, Y.; Schwebel, D.C.; Hu, G. Unintentional Child and Adolescent Drowning Mortality from 2000 to 2013 in 21 Countries: Analysis of the WHO Mortality Database. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 875.

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