Next Article in Journal
Smoke-Free Recovery from Trauma Surgery: A Pilot Trial of an Online Smoking Cessation Program for Orthopaedic Trauma Patients
Previous Article in Journal
Quantifying Grain-Size Variability of Metal Pollutants in Road-Deposited Sediments Using the Coefficient of Variation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Using Health Impact Assessment as an Interdisciplinary Teaching Tool
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(8), 846; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14080846

Human Health Risk Assessment Applied to Rural Populations Dependent on Unregulated Drinking Water Sources: A Scoping Review

1
School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon SK S7N 5C8, Canada
2
School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon SK S7N 2Z4, Canada
3
Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon SK S7N 5B4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 May 2017 / Revised: 15 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Impact Assessment)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1062 KB, uploaded 28 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

Safe drinking water is a global challenge for rural populations dependent on unregulated water. A scoping review of research on human health risk assessments (HHRA) applied to this vulnerable population may be used to improve assessments applied by government and researchers. This review aims to summarize and describe the characteristics of HHRA methods, publications, and current literature gaps of HHRA studies on rural populations dependent on unregulated or unspecified drinking water. Peer-reviewed literature was systematically searched (January 2000 to May 2014) and identified at least one drinking water source as unregulated (21%) or unspecified (79%) in 100 studies. Only 7% of reviewed studies identified a rural community dependent on unregulated drinking water. Source water and hazards most frequently cited included groundwater (67%) and chemical water hazards (82%). Most HHRAs (86%) applied deterministic methods with 14% reporting probabilistic and stochastic methods. Publications increased over time with 57% set in Asia, and 47% of studies identified at least one literature gap in the areas of research, risk management, and community exposure. HHRAs applied to rural populations dependent on unregulated water are poorly represented in the literature even though almost half of the global population is rural. View Full-Text
Keywords: risk assessment; deterministic; groundwater; holistic; probabilistic; rural population; drinking water; human health risk assessment; deterministic; groundwater; holistic; probabilistic; rural population; drinking water; human health
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ford, L.; Bharadwaj, L.; McLeod, L.; Waldner, C. Human Health Risk Assessment Applied to Rural Populations Dependent on Unregulated Drinking Water Sources: A Scoping Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 846.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top