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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 329;

Efficacy and Safety Evaluation of a Chlorine Dioxide Solution

Unique Biotech Co., Ltd., Rm. 1, 22 F, No. 56, Minsheng 1st Road, Xinxing District, Kaohsiung 800, Taiwan
Institute of Biochemistry, College of Life Science, National Chung Hsing University, No. 145 Xingda Road, South District, Taichung 402, Taiwan
Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, College of Health Science, Asia University, No. 500, Lioufeng Road, Wufeng District, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
Department of Biological Science and Technology, College of Biopharmaceutical and Food Sciences, China Medical University, No. 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
Department of Applied Cosmetology/Degree Program of Cosmetology and Health Care, Kao Yuan University, No. 1821, Zhongshan Road, Lujhu District, Kaohsiung 82151, Taiwan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miklas Scholz
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2531 KB, uploaded 22 March 2017]   |  


In this study, a chlorine dioxide solution (UC-1) composed of chlorine dioxide was produced using an electrolytic method and subsequently purified using a membrane. UC-1 was determined to contain 2000 ppm of gaseous chlorine dioxide in water. The efficacy and safety of UC-1 were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was more than 98.2% reduction when UC-1 concentrations were 5 and 20 ppm for bacteria and fungi, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of H1N1, influenza virus B/TW/71718/04, and EV71 were 84.65 ± 0.64, 95.91 ± 11.61, and 46.39 ± 1.97 ppm, respectively. A 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test revealed that the cell viability of mouse lung fibroblast L929 cells was 93.7% at a 200 ppm UC-1 concentration that is over that anticipated in routine use. Moreover, 50 ppm UC-1 showed no significant symptoms in a rabbit ocular irritation test. In an inhalation toxicity test, treatment with 20 ppm UC-1 for 24 h showed no abnormality and no mortality in clinical symptoms and normal functioning of the lung and other organs. A ClO2 concentration of up to 40 ppm in drinking water did not show any toxicity in a subchronic oral toxicity test. Herein, UC-1 showed favorable disinfection activity and a higher safety profile tendency than in previous reports. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlorine dioxide (PubChem CID: 24870); antimicrobial efficacy; antiviral assay; inhalation toxicity; subchronic oral toxicity chlorine dioxide (PubChem CID: 24870); antimicrobial efficacy; antiviral assay; inhalation toxicity; subchronic oral toxicity

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Ma, J.-W.; Huang, B.-S.; Hsu, C.-W.; Peng, C.-W.; Cheng, M.-L.; Kao, J.-Y.; Way, T.-D.; Yin, H.-C.; Wang, S.-S. Efficacy and Safety Evaluation of a Chlorine Dioxide Solution. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 329.

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