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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 255;

Smoking Trends among U.S. Latinos, 1998–2013: The Impact of Immigrant Arrival Cohort

Sociology Department and Environmental Science & Policy Program, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866, USA
Program in Public Health, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
Center for Social Epidemiology and Population Health, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jimmy T. Efird and Pollie Bith-Melander
Received: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Refugee Health)
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Few studies examine nativity disparities in smoking in the U.S., thus a major gap remains in understanding whether immigrant Latinos’ smoking prevalence is stable, converging, or diverging, compared with U.S.-born Latinos. This study aimed to disentangle the roles of period changes, duration of U.S. residence, and immigrant arrival cohort in explaining the gap in smoking prevalence between foreign-born and U.S.-born Latinos. Using repeated cross-sectional data spanning 1998–2013 (U.S. National Health Interview Survey), regressions predicted current smoking among foreign-born and U.S.-born Latino men and women (n = 12,492). We contrasted findings from conventional regression analyses that simply include period and duration of residence effects, to two methods of assessing arrival cohort effects: the first accounted for baseline differences in smoking among arrival cohorts, while the second examined smoking probabilities by tracking foreign-born arrival cohorts as they increase their duration of U.S. residence. Findings showed that Latino immigrants maintained lower prevalence of current smoking compared with U.S.-born Latinos over the period 1998–2013, and that longer duration of U.S. residence is associated with lower odds of smoking among men. Two findings are particularly novel: (1) accounting for immigrant arrival cohort dampens the overall protective effect of duration of residence among men; and (2) the earliest arrival cohort of Latino immigrant men experienced the steepest decline in smoking over duration of U.S. residence. Results have methodological and theoretical implications for smoking studies and the Latino mortality paradox. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoking; migration; Hispanic paradox; acculturation; cohort effects smoking; migration; Hispanic paradox; acculturation; cohort effects

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Bostean, G.; Ro, A.; Fleischer, N.L. Smoking Trends among U.S. Latinos, 1998–2013: The Impact of Immigrant Arrival Cohort. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 255.

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