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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(8), 808;

Prevalence of Pre-Diabetes and Its Associated Risk Factors in Rural Areas of Ningbo, China

Runliang Diabetes Laboratory, Diabetes Research Center, Ningbo University, 818 Fenghua Road, 315211 Ningbo, China
Yinzhou District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 315211 Ningbo, China
Shanghai 10th People’s Hospital, University of Tongji, 200240 Shanghai, China
School of Public Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, 2006 Sydney, Australia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Omorogieva Ojo
Received: 20 May 2016 / Revised: 4 August 2016 / Accepted: 5 August 2016 / Published: 10 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Health Care and Diabetes)
Full-Text   |   PDF [302 KB, uploaded 11 August 2016]


Objective: The aims of the study were to investigate the prevalence of pre-diabetes and explore its associated risk factors in rural areas of Ningbo, China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 4583 adult residents in rural areas of Ningbo, China between March and May 2013. The survey used a multi-stage, stratified, cluster sampling method. Data collected included demographics and medical history, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood lipid, and plasma glucose. After at least 10 h of overnight fasting, participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to identify pre-diabetes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the associated risk factors for pre-diabetes, and to estimate the effect of interaction between the factors. Results: There were 1307 survey participants having pre-diabetes (28.52%) and the age-standardized prevalence was 30.53%. Multivariate logistic regression results showed that overweight/obesity, hypertension, and higher triglycerides were the risk factors for developing pre-diabetes. There were positive interactions between overweight/obesity and triglycerides, and also between hypertension and triglycerides on the multiplicative scale, suggesting that they synergistically influenced the development of pre-diabetes. Conclusions: The rural areas in Ningbo had a high prevalence of pre-diabetes. Overweight and obesity, hypertension, and elevated triglycerides were the major risk factors. There is a need of early intervention for preventing pre-diabetes. View Full-Text
Keywords: pre-diabetes; risk factor; prevalence; rural area; interaction pre-diabetes; risk factor; prevalence; rural area; interaction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhao, M.; Lin, H.; Yuan, Y.; Wang, F.; Xi, Y.; Wen, L.M.; Shen, P.; Bu, S. Prevalence of Pre-Diabetes and Its Associated Risk Factors in Rural Areas of Ningbo, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 808.

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