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Open AccessArticle

Influences of Green Outdoors versus Indoors Environmental Settings on Psychological and Social Outcomes of Controlled Exercise

Centre for Sports and Exercise Science, School of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex CO4 3SQ, UK
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Academic Editor: Harry Timmermans
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(4), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13040363
Received: 4 November 2015 / Revised: 29 December 2015 / Accepted: 22 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
This study addressed a methodological gap by comparing psychological and social outcomes of exercise in green outdoors versus built indoors settings, whilst rigorously controlling exercise mode and intensity. The hypotheses were that greater improvements or more desirable values for directed attention, mood, perceived exertion, social interaction time, intention for future exercise behaviour and enjoyment would be associated with outdoors compared to indoors exercise. Following a baseline session, paired participants completed two conditions of 15 min of cycling on an ergometer placed outside in a natural environment and inside in a laboratory setting in a randomized, counter-balanced order. At pre- and post-exercise, directed attention was measured with the digit span backwards task, and mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States. During the exercise session, visual and verbal interactions were recorded by means of experimenter observations. After each exercise session, participants provided self-reports of their enjoyment of the exercise, perceived exertion and intention for future exercise in the same environment. Social interaction time was significantly greater during outdoors exercise versus indoors; on average, participants engaged in three minutes more social interaction during exercise outdoors compared to indoors. Social interaction time significantly predicted intention for future exercise in the outdoors condition, but did not in the indoor condition. There was a significant time by condition interaction for directed attention. Scores worsened in the indoors condition, but improved in the outdoors condition. There was no statistically-significant time by condition interaction for mood and no significant difference between conditions for either perceived exertion or intention. Taken together, these findings show that exercise in a natural environment may promote directed attention and social interactions, which may positively influence future exercise intentions. View Full-Text
Keywords: green exercise; wellbeing; directed attention; exercise environments; affect; perceived exertion; intention; exercise behaviour; social interaction green exercise; wellbeing; directed attention; exercise environments; affect; perceived exertion; intention; exercise behaviour; social interaction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rogerson, M.; Gladwell, V.F.; Gallagher, D.J.; Barton, J.L. Influences of Green Outdoors versus Indoors Environmental Settings on Psychological and Social Outcomes of Controlled Exercise. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 363.

AMA Style

Rogerson M, Gladwell VF, Gallagher DJ, Barton JL. Influences of Green Outdoors versus Indoors Environmental Settings on Psychological and Social Outcomes of Controlled Exercise. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016; 13(4):363.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rogerson, Mike; Gladwell, Valerie F.; Gallagher, Daniel J.; Barton, Jo L. 2016. "Influences of Green Outdoors versus Indoors Environmental Settings on Psychological and Social Outcomes of Controlled Exercise" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 13, no. 4: 363.

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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