Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Micro RNA in Exosomes from HIV-Infected Macrophages
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Identification of Barriers to Stroke Awareness and Risk Factor Management Unique to Hispanics
Article

Persistent HIV Viremia: Description of a Cohort of HIV Infected Individuals with ART Failure in Puerto Rico

1
Data Management and Statistical Research Support Unit, Universidad Central del Caribe, Bayamón 00960, Puerto Rico
2
Internal Medicine Department, Universidad Central del Caribe, Bayamón 00960, Puerto Rico
3
Microbiology Department, Universidad Central del Caribe, Bayamón 00960, Puerto Rico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Mark Edberg, Barbara E. Hayes, Valerie Montgomery Rice and Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13010050
Received: 15 August 2015 / Revised: 16 November 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 22 December 2015
The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has allowed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) suppression in patients. We present data of a cohort of Puerto Rican patients with HIV who were under treatment with a steady regime of ART across a time horizon of eleven years. The time periods were categorized into four year stratums: 2000 to 2002; 2003 to 2005; 2006 to 2008 and 2009 to 2011. Socio-demographic profile, HIV risk factors, co-morbid conditions were included as study variables. One year mortality was defined. The p value was set at ≤0.05. The cohort consisted of 882 patients with 661 subjects presenting with persistent HIV viral load after a self-reported 12 month history of ART use. In this sub-cohort a higher viral load was seen across time (p < 0.05). Illicit drug use, IV drug use, alcohol use, loss of work were associated to having higher viral load means (p < 0.05). HIV viral load mean was lower as BMI increased (p < 0.001). It is imperative to readdress antiretroviral adherence protocols and further study ART tolerance and compliance. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV; viremia; mean viral load; ART; Puerto Rico HIV; viremia; mean viral load; ART; Puerto Rico
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Maldonado-Martínez, G.; Hunter-Mellado, R.F.; Fernández-Santos, D.; Ríos-Olivares, E. Persistent HIV Viremia: Description of a Cohort of HIV Infected Individuals with ART Failure in Puerto Rico. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 50. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13010050

AMA Style

Maldonado-Martínez G, Hunter-Mellado RF, Fernández-Santos D, Ríos-Olivares E. Persistent HIV Viremia: Description of a Cohort of HIV Infected Individuals with ART Failure in Puerto Rico. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016; 13(1):50. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13010050

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maldonado-Martínez, Gerónimo, Robert F. Hunter-Mellado, Diana Fernández-Santos, and Eddy Ríos-Olivares. 2016. "Persistent HIV Viremia: Description of a Cohort of HIV Infected Individuals with ART Failure in Puerto Rico" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13, no. 1: 50. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13010050

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop