Next Article in Journal
Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana — Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics
Previous Article in Journal
Understanding Health Information Seeking from an Actor-Centric Perspective
Open AccessArticle

Extraction of 3,4,4′-Trichlorocarbanilide from Rat Fecal Samples for Determination by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry

1
Comparative and Experimental Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
2
Department of Public Health, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
3
Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
4
Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee Medical Center, Knoxville, TN 37920, USA
5
Center for Environmental Biotechnology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
6
Department of Natural Sciences, Heritage University, Toppenish, WA 98948, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Huang-Tsung Chang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(7), 8125-8132; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120708125
Received: 12 June 2015 / Revised: 7 July 2015 / Accepted: 9 July 2015 / Published: 15 July 2015
Triclocarban (3,4,4′-Trichlorocarbanilide; TCC) in the environment has been well documented. Methods have been developed to monitor TCC levels from various matrices including water, sediment, biosolids, plants, blood and urine; however, no method has been developed to document the concentration of TCC in fecal content after oral exposure in animal studies. In the present study, we developed and validated a method that uses liquid extraction coupled with HPLC-MS/MS determination to measure TCC in feces. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation in control rats without TCC exposure was 69.0 ng/g and 92.9 ng/g of feces, respectively. The base levels of TCC in feces were lower than LOD. At 12 days of treatment, the fecal TCC concentration increased to 2220 µg/g among 0.2% w/w exposed animals. The concentration in fecal samples decreased over the washout period in 0.2% w/w treated animals to 0.399 µ/g feces after exposure was removed for 28 days. This method required a small amount of sample (0.1 g) with simple sample preparation. Given its sensitivity and efficiency, this method may be useful for monitoring TCC exposure in toxicological studies of animals. View Full-Text
Keywords: triclocarban; antimicrobials; feces; HPLC-MS/MS triclocarban; antimicrobials; feces; HPLC-MS/MS
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kennedy, R.C.; Fling, R.R.; Terry, P.D.; Menn, F.-M.; Chen, J.; Borman, C.J. Extraction of 3,4,4′-Trichlorocarbanilide from Rat Fecal Samples for Determination by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 8125-8132.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop