Environmental Resource Management in Borderlands: Evolution from Competing Interests to Common Aversions
2. Cross Border Regions
- “Framing [environmental] conflicts as a dilemma of common aversion”
- “Linking environmental concerns to other issues”
- “Using environmental concerns as a trust-building tool”
2.2. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for a CBR
Just as chemical catalytic processes require specific temperature or pressure criteria for efficacy, an active negotiation climate with appropriate mediation may be required to make the parties realize the mutual gains from keeping environmental matters in mind.
2.3. Catalyzing Sustainable Consensus
|Country A (Cooperation)||Country B (Non-Cooperation)|
|Country A (cooperation)||3,3||1,4|
|Country B (non-cooperation)||4,1||2,2|
|Country A (Cooperation)||Country B (Non-Cooperation)|
|Country A (cooperation)||3,3||2,4|
|Country B (non-cooperation)||4,2||2,2|
If potential adversaries are able to think of future consequences of present actions because of their common aversion to environmental harms, there is a greater likelihood that they may also bring the same outlook to other points of contention.(, p. 168)
3. The Setting: The Fraser Lowland
3.1. Geographic Context
3.2. Overview of the SE2 Decision Problem
|Year||Event||Security Focus||Decision Location|
|1990||NESCO receives permits from City of Sumas, WA to construct SE1 a small 120 mw co-generation power plant||Energy||US|
|1998||SE1 effluent flows north across border to Abbotsford BC treatment facility||Environment||US & Canada|
|1999||NESCO files initial SE2 plans to EFSEC requesting permits for a large dual natural gas and diesel fueled 660 mw power plant.||Energy||US|
|2000||Grassroots campaign in opposition to SE2 in US and Canada||Environment||US|
|2001||EFSEC unanimously rejects initial plan in 0–11 vote||Environment||US|
|2001||NESCO submits a revised SE2 plan for a natural gas only power plant||Energy||US|
|2002||EFSEC approves SE2 permits by unanimous vote of 12-0||Energy||US|
|BC and Environment Canada challenge US-EPA permits for SE2||Environment||US|
|BC requested NEB to expand its normal jurisdiction to also consider environmental effects in the SE2 review process||Environment||Canada|
|NEB declares that the review for connection of SE2 to the power grid can also include the environmental effects of the plant itself||Energy & Environment||Canada|
|2003||US-EPA rejects BC and Environment Canada’s challenge||Environment||US|
|NEB rules that connection for SE2 to the power grid is not environmentally damaging||Environment||Canada|
|2004||NEB rejects request for SE2 permit to connect to Canadian power grid citing local Canadian environmental impacts of US plant itself||Environment||Canada|
|NESCO appeals NEB decision to Canadian Federal Court of Appeal||Energy||Canada|
|2005||Canadian Federal Court of Appeal unanimously upholds NEB decision.||Environment||Canada|
|2006||NESCO decides not to appeal the Court decision to the Supreme Court of Canada withdraws application for SE2||Energy||US|
3.3. Competing Interests or Common Aversion
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Buckley, P.H.; Belec, J.; Levy, J. Environmental Resource Management in Borderlands: Evolution from Competing Interests to Common Aversions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 7541-7557. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120707541
Buckley PH, Belec J, Levy J. Environmental Resource Management in Borderlands: Evolution from Competing Interests to Common Aversions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2015; 12(7):7541-7557. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120707541Chicago/Turabian Style
Buckley, Patrick Henry, John Belec, and Jason Levy. 2015. "Environmental Resource Management in Borderlands: Evolution from Competing Interests to Common Aversions" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12, no. 7: 7541-7557. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120707541