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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(5), 4652-4669;

A Method for the Preparation of Chicken Liver Pâté that Reliably Destroys Campylobacters

School of Veterinary Sciences, University of Bristol, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Mieke Uyttendaele, Eelco Franz and Oliver Schlüter
Received: 18 March 2015 / Revised: 15 April 2015 / Accepted: 22 April 2015 / Published: 28 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety)
PDF [1246 KB, uploaded 28 April 2015]


This study devised a protocol for the manufacture of commercial quantities of chicken liver pâté that reliably destroyed campylobacters. A literature search identified 40 pâté manufacture recipes. Recipes stages with a potential to be antimicrobial were assembled to form a new protocol that included washing with organic acid, freeze-thaw and flambé in alcohol. Naturally-contaminated, high-risk livers were obtained from clearance flocks at slaughter and the effect of each stage of the protocol on Campylobacter populations was determined. Organic acid washing changed the color of the liver surfaces. However, there were no significant differences between liver surface color changes when a range of concentrations of lactic acid and ethanoic acid washes were compared by reflective spectrophotometry. A 5% (w/v) acid wash reduced numbers of indigenous campylobacters by around 1.5 log10 CFU/g for both acids. The use of a Bain Marie was found to more reproducibly apply heat compared with pan-frying. Antimicrobial recipe stages reduced the numbers of campylobacters, but not significantly if thermal processing was ineffective. Cooking to 63°C was confirmed to be a critical control point for campylobacters cooked in a Bain Marie. Organoleptic and sensory assessment of pâté determined an overall preference for pâté made from frozen livers. View Full-Text
Keywords: Campylobacter; pâté; effective cooking; food safety; critical control point Campylobacter; pâté; effective cooking; food safety; critical control point

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Hutchison, M.; Harrison, D.; Richardson, I.; Tchórzewska, M. A Method for the Preparation of Chicken Liver Pâté that Reliably Destroys Campylobacters. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 4652-4669.

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