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Open AccessArticle

A Concurrent Exposure to Arsenic and Fluoride from Drinking Water in Chihuahua, Mexico

Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31125, Mexico
Departamento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Cinvestav-IPN), Mexico D. F. 07360, Mexico
Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461, USA
Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango (UJED), Gómez Palacio, Durango 35050, Mexico
IARC Monographs Section, IARC/WHO, Lyon Cedex 69372, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ravi Naidu and Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(5), 4587-4601;
Received: 14 February 2015 / Revised: 11 March 2015 / Accepted: 31 March 2015 / Published: 24 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic in Drinking Water: Current Perspectives and Future Directions)
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) and fluoride (F) are naturally occurring drinking water contaminants. However, co-exposure to these contaminants and its effects on human health are understudied. The goal of this study was examined exposures to iAs and F in Chihuahua, Mexico, where exposure to iAs in drinking water has been associated with adverse health effects. All 1119 eligible Chihuahua residents (>18 years) provided a sample of drinking water and spot urine samples. iAs and F concentrations in water samples ranged from 0.1 to 419.8 µg As/L and from 0.05 to 11.8 mg F/L. Urinary arsenic (U-tAs) and urinary F (U-F) levels ranged from 0.5 to 467.9 ng As/mL and from 0.1 to 14.4 µg F/mL. A strong positive correlation was found between iAs and F concentrations in drinking water (rs = 0.741). Similarly, U-tAs levels correlated positively with U-F concentrations (rs = 0.633). These results show that Chihuahua residents exposed to high iAs concentrations in drinking water are also exposed to high levels of F, raising questions about possible contribution of F exposure to the adverse effects that have so far been attributed only to iAs exposure. Thus, investigation of possible interactions between iAs and F exposures and its related health risks deserves immediate attention. View Full-Text
Keywords: adults; arsenic; drinking water; fluoride; groundwater adults; arsenic; drinking water; fluoride; groundwater
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González-Horta, C.; Ballinas-Casarrubias, L.; Sánchez-Ramírez, B.; Ishida, M.C.; Barrera-Hernández, A.; Gutiérrez-Torres, D.; Zacarias, O.L.; Saunders, R.J.; Drobná, Z.; Mendez, M.A.; García-Vargas, G.; Loomis, D.; Stýblo, M.; Del Razo, L.M. A Concurrent Exposure to Arsenic and Fluoride from Drinking Water in Chihuahua, Mexico. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 4587-4601.

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