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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(3), 3091-3119;

Interventions to Reduce Harm from Smoking with Families in Infancy and Early Childhood: A Systematic Review

Centre for Cardiovascular and Chronic Care, Faculty of Health, University of Technology, P.O. Box 123, Broadway, New South Wales 2007, Sydney Australia
John Hopkins University, School of Nursing, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ivy Shiue
Received: 21 January 2015 / Revised: 3 March 2015 / Accepted: 5 March 2015 / Published: 16 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor activities and health risks/protection)
Full-Text   |   PDF [778 KB, uploaded 17 March 2015]   |  


Exposure to adult smoking can have deleterious effects on children. Interventions that assist families with smoking cessation/reduction and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) avoidance can improve child health outcomes and reduce the risk of smoking initiation. The purpose of this review was to describe the state of the science of interventions with families to promote smoke-free home environments for infants and young children, including parent smoking reduction and cessation interventions, ETS reduction, and anti-smoking socialisation interventions, using the socio-ecological framework as a guide. A systematic review of peer-reviewed articles identified from journal databases from 2000 to 2014 was undertaken. Of 921 articles identified, 28 were included in the review. Considerable heterogeneity characterised target populations, intervention types, complexity and intensity, precluding meta-analysis. Few studies used socio-ecological approaches, such as family theories or concepts. Studies in early parenthood (child age newborn to one year) tended to focus on parent smoking cessation, where studies of families with children aged 1–5 years were more likely to target household SHSe reduction. Results suggest that interventions for reduction in ETS may be more successful than for smoking cessation and relapse prevention in families of children aged less than 5 years. There is a need for a range of interventions to support families in creating a smoke free home environment that are both tailored and targeted to specific populations. Interventions that target the social and psychodynamics of the family should be considered further, particularly in reaching vulnerable populations. Consideration is also required for approaches to interventions that may further stigmatise families containing smokers. Further research is required to identify successful elements of interventions and the contexts in which they are most effective. View Full-Text
Keywords: child; family; smoking; smoking cessation; second hand smoke; antismoking socialisation child; family; smoking; smoking cessation; second hand smoke; antismoking socialisation

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Brown, N.; Luckett, T.; Davidson, P.M.; Di Giacomo, M. Interventions to Reduce Harm from Smoking with Families in Infancy and Early Childhood: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 3091-3119.

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