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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(3), 2543-2556;

Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

Health and the Environment, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, 5001, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 13 January 2015 / Revised: 23 February 2015 / Accepted: 23 February 2015 / Published: 26 February 2015
Full-Text   |   PDF [214 KB, uploaded 26 February 2015]


Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella; salmonellosis; public health; risk assessment; caged; free range; organic; food handling; foodborne illness Salmonella; salmonellosis; public health; risk assessment; caged; free range; organic; food handling; foodborne illness
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Whiley, H.; Ross, K. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 2543-2556.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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