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Indoor and Outdoor Exposure to Ultrafine, Fine and Microbiologically Derived Particulate Matter Related to Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effects in a Panel of Elderly Urban Citizens
Open AccessArticle

Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children’s Health (UPTECH) in Brisbane, Queensland (Australia): Study Design and Implementation

1
Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, 431 Glebe Point Road, Glebe, NSW 2037, Australia
2
International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane, QLD 4000, Australia
3
South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(2), 1687-1702; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120201687
Received: 30 July 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2015 / Published: 2 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrafine Particles and Potential Health Effects)
Ultrafine particles are particles that are less than 0.1 micrometres (µm) in diameter. Due to their very small size they can penetrate deep into the lungs, and potentially cause more damage than larger particles. The Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children’s Health (UPTECH) study is the first Australian epidemiological study to assess the health effects of ultrafine particles on children’s health in general and peripheral airways in particular. The study is being conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Continuous indoor and outdoor air pollution monitoring was conducted within each of the twenty five participating school campuses to measure particulate matter, including in the ultrafine size range, and gases. Respiratory health effects were evaluated by conducting the following tests on participating children at each school: spirometry, forced oscillation technique (FOT) and multiple breath nitrogen washout test (MBNW) (to assess airway function), fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, to assess airway inflammation), blood cotinine levels (to assess exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke), and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (to measure systemic inflammation). A pilot study was conducted prior to commencing the main study to assess the feasibility and reliably of measurement of some of the clinical tests that have been proposed for the main study. Air pollutant exposure measurements were not included in the pilot study. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrafine particles; children; traffic; respiratory; air pollution; monitoring ultrafine particles; children; traffic; respiratory; air pollution; monitoring
MDPI and ACS Style

Ezz, W.N.; Mazaheri, M.; Robinson, P.; Johnson, G.R.; Clifford, S.; He, C.; Morawska, L.; Marks, G.B. Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children’s Health (UPTECH) in Brisbane, Queensland (Australia): Study Design and Implementation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 1687-1702.

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