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Open AccessArticle

Exposure to Endocrine Disrupters and Nuclear Receptor Gene Expression in Infertile and Fertile Women from Different Italian Areas

1
Department of Food Safety and Veterinary Public Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma 00161, Italy
2
Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Siena 53100, Italy
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Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, Pisa 73100, Italy
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Department of Obstetric and Gynecological Sciences and Urological Sciences, University of Roma Sapienza, S. Andrea Hospital, Roma 00189, Italy
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Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bologna, Ozzano dell'Emilia 40064, Italy
6
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Advanced Therapies, Section of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Ferrara, Ferrara 44121, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10146-10164; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111010146
Received: 11 July 2014 / Revised: 15 September 2014 / Accepted: 22 September 2014 / Published: 29 September 2014
Within the PREVIENI project, infertile and fertile women were enrolled from metropolitan, urban and rural Italian areas. Blood/serum levels of several endocrine disrupters (EDs) (perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS; perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA; di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate, DEHP; mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate, MEHP; bisphenol A, BPA) were evaluated concurrently with nuclear receptors (NRs) gene expression levels (ERa, ERb, AR, AhR, PPARg, PXR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Infertile women from the metropolitan area displayed significantly higher levels of: BPA compared to fertile women (14.9 vs. 0.5 ng/mL serum); BPA and MEHP compared to infertile women from urban and rural areas; enhanced expression levels of NRs, except PPARg. Infertile women from urban and rural areas had PFOA levels significantly higher than those from metropolitan areas. Our study indicates the relevance of the living environment when investigating the exposure to EDs and the modulation of the NR panel in PBMC as a suitable biomarker of the effect, to assess the EDs impact on reproductive health. View Full-Text
Keywords: human exposure; women infertility; PFOS; PFOA; BPA; DEHP; MEHP; biomarkers human exposure; women infertility; PFOS; PFOA; BPA; DEHP; MEHP; biomarkers
MDPI and ACS Style

La Rocca, C.; Tait, S.; Guerranti, C.; Busani, L.; Ciardo, F.; Bergamasco, B.; Stecca, L.; Perra, G.; Mancini, F.R.; Marci, R.; Bordi, G.; Caserta, D.; Focardi, S.; Moscarini, M.; Mantovani, A. Exposure to Endocrine Disrupters and Nuclear Receptor Gene Expression in Infertile and Fertile Women from Different Italian Areas. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 10146-10164.

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