- freely available
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 3908-3929; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10093908
2. Literature Review—Barriers to PSE for Students from Low Income Backgrounds
Additional Barriers Faced by Students from LIIVM Backgrounds
4.1. The Aspirations of Students Enrolled in Post-Secondary Education
4.1.1. Hope for a Better Future
“I was tired of being on social assistance because it’s like they have to know your life. They dictate your life, right, depending’ on which worker you have, right. They ask questions like about income, about umm who’s all living’ with you and stuff like that. And some of it’s personal you know, and some of them they don’t need to know….”
4.1.2. Giving Back to Their Community
“I come across a lot of the Africans that are coming in and they express a lot of problems with integration into the mainstream and there is the need for somebody that they will be comfortable with, their own—they say that they feel intimidated over the time you know and that somebody of their own would be very comfortable.”
4.1.3. Upgrading Qualifications
4.1.4. Being Good Role Models
“I wanted to show my daughter who’s gonna be ten this year that she could go to school, you know… that she doesn’t have to work at low-paying jobs or, or be on welfare, right… I wanted to change all that for her.”
4.2. Challenges Faced during the Course of Their Study Program
4.2.1. An Oppressive Financial Assistance Scheme
“If the intent of the assistance is to help people like me not become burden on the system but to become a productive member they were going to give me something that will sustain me to go through the program. At the end of the day after the tuition fee, I was left with $840 to pay for my rent, transport and lodge. Most students in my course were breaking down…”
Career investigation: Qualified students must have a set of employment goals…Referral to training: Student advisor to approve your training plan…Commencement of training: Training commences and you enter Service Management. This is your support system. It monitors your attendance and progress while you are in school.Completion of training: you…start looking for workFollow-up: you will be contacted twice over a six-month period, once at three months and once at six months, for a report on your job search or employment situation
“I had to dig in, even though the system is there, you have to know the vocabulary to use because it’s controlled to a point where they don’t tell you until you ask.”
Implications of Financial Assistance Schemes on Student Health and Well-Being—A Critical Theory Perspective
4.2.2. The Culture of Teaching and Learning
“Teachers should incorporate indigenous ways of knowing/learning such as sharing circles as this will contextualize teaching to our lived experiences and make it culturally more relevant—this could help to break down the mistrust and the interaction problems between students and teachers and the cliquey problem we have here.”
“Classroom social norms and the teaching practices of some teachers are not reflective of the values of equality, empowerment and respect for diversity.”
4.2.3. Racism—An Ongoing Experience
“She seems to be promoting inequality through: not penalizing plagiarism, playing favorites, accepting and perpetuating racist attitudes and behaviors from students and creating a hierarchical classroom structure.”
“Powerless, unable to resolve social conflicts, discouraged social cohesiveness and created a negative classroom atmosphere.”
“Excluding you in a conversation, condescending stares and the ‘cliquey problem’ with distinct racial groups sticking together.”
“White women refuse to acknowledge there is a history and they don’t even want to talk about this history.”
“So I am an immigrant—I don’t want to restructure their school system, but if you speak to anybody and they say that’s how this school system is, you feel like maybe it’s going to look like I’m from a different learning standard, I cannot cope with the learning standard here—or maybe it’s me, I wasn’t educated in this country so maybe it’s me who is having this problem.I have not spoken to anybody (authority figures) but we students talk amongst ourselves and they say that’s their school system and that’s how it is.I sometimes feel I’m not even supposed to complain because I don’t deserve this. This is like—they (the whites) are doing me a favor, they don’t have to do that for me. Sometimes you get that mentality because of where you come from, so you don’t even see the biases or anything in that system….”
Racism and Its Influence on Health and Well-Being
4.3. Perceived Influence of Challenges on Health and Well-Being
4.3.1. Physical and Psychological Problems
“I’ve never experienced stress before like what I am experiencing when I started school. I have started to taking pills for stress because I will feel it in my neck, I will feel my muscle—I try not to and I know its stress. Sometimes I would feel like I am drowning so I have to tell myself “stop and just relax” and don’t think about anything until your muscles start to relax because I can feel it. I never experienced those things before until I started school so I know its stress.The pressure—it is affecting my memory. It’s true because before I had a very good memory but I noticed that since I started school I’m very, very forgetful—last term I was the type who was very attentive. But now I forget things that’s for sure. So now I try to train my memories—train my brain to remember things because I find myself forgetting things easily—very easily. It’s affecting my relationships as well …,I noticed a lot of people dropped the course—when we started I think we were 40 something but now we’re less probably maybe we’re around 20 something. See lots of people dropped the course because they couldn’t take the course load …the pressure.”
4.3.2. Consulting Formal School Counseling Services—Not Part of Culture
4.3.3. What Keeps Them Going
“I grew up in a home where I knew that prayers work. People pray when you have problem. I feel like relief when I’m praying and in my heart I know yes I know there’s a God. Prayer—that’s what kept us going through the war. Back home in the war that’s what we lived on—prayers.”
5.1. Practice and Policy Implications
5.2. Making Financial Assistance Schemes Work for Low Income Minority Student
5.3. Addressing Racism
5.4. Introducing Culturally Relevant Teaching and Learning Pedagogy
5.5. Other Structural Supports to Empower Marginalized Students
Conflicts of Interest
- Commission on the Social Determinants of Health Final Report. 2008. Available online: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789241563703_eng.pdf (accessed on 8 November 2012).
- Raphael, D. Social Determinants of Health, Canadian Perspectives; Canadian Scholars’ Press Inc.: Toronto, ON, Canada, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Canadian Council on Learning. Lessons in Learning. Post-Secondary Education in Canada: Who is Missing Out? Available online: http://www.ccl-cca.ca/pdfs/LessonsInLearning/04_01_09E.pdf (accessed on 8 November 2012).
- Braveman, P.; Egerter, S.; Williams, D. The social determinants of health: Coming of age. Annu. Rev. Publ. Health 2011, 32, 381–398. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dewalt, D.A.; Berkman, N.D.; Sheridan, S.; Lohr, K.N.; Pignone, M.P. Literacy and health outcomes: A systematic review of the literature. J. Gen. Intern. Med. 2004, 19, 1228–1239. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sanders, L.M.; Federico, S.; Klass, P.; Abrams, M.A.; Dreyer, B. Literacy and child health: A systematic review. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 2009, 163, 131–140. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bartley, M.; Plewis, I. Accumulated labour market disadvantage and limiting long-term illness: Data from the 1971–1991 Office for National Statistics’ longitudinal study. Int. J. Epidemiol. 2002, 31, 336–341. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mirowsky, J.; Ross, C. Education, personal control, lifestyle, and health. A human capital hypothesis. Res. Ag. 1998, 20, 415–449. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Leganger, A.; Kraft, P. Control constructs: Do they mediate the relation between educational attainment and health behavior? J. Health Psychol. 2003, 8, 361–372. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mirowsky, J.; Ross, C. Education, Social Status, and Health; Aldine de Gruyter: New York, NY, USA, 2003. [Google Scholar]
- Mickelson, K.D.; Kubzansky, L.D. Social distribution of social support: The mediating role of life events. Am. J. Commun. Psychol. 2003, 32, 265–281. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Berkman, L.F.; Glass, T. Social Integration, Social Networks, Social Support, and Health. In Social Epidemiology; Berkman, L.F., Kawachi, I., Eds.; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2000; pp. 137–173. [Google Scholar]
- Canadian Council on Learning. State of Learning in Canada: Toward a Learning Future. Available online: http://www.ccl-cca.ca/pdfs/SOLR/2008/SOLR_08_English_final.pdf (accessed on 8 November 2012).
- Torjman, S. Proposed Reforms to Post-Secondary Education; Caledon Institute of Social Policy: Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2010. Available online: http://www.caledoninst.org/Publications/PDF/ 866ENG.pdf (accessed on 8 November 2012).
- Renaud, V.; Costa, R. 1996 Census of Population: Certification Report, Population Group; Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division, Statistics Canada: Ottawa, ON, Canada, 1999. [Google Scholar]
- Cooper, M.; Cooper, G. Overcoming Barriers to the Positive Development and Engagement of Ethno-Racial Minority Youth in Canada. A Report Completed for Canadian Heritage, Alberta. 2008. Available online: http://www.eslaction.com/main/Background%20Document%20%20Youth%20Framework%20%283%29.pdf (accessed on 8 November 2012).
- Berger, J.; Motte, A.; Parkin, A. The Price of Knowledge: Access and Student Finance in Canada, 3rd ed.; Canada Millennium Scholarship Foundation: Montreal, QC, Canada, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Guillory, R.M.; Wolverton, M. It’s about family: Native American student persistence in higher education. J. High. Educ. 2008, 79, 58–87. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Aboriginal Peoples and Post-Secondary Education. What Educators Have Learned. A Report Prepared for the Canada Millennium Scholarship Foundation. 2004. Available online: http://www.turtleisland.org/education/postseced.pdf (accessed on 8 November 2012).
- Pin, L.; Rudnicki, C. Policy Paper: Aboriginal Students. 2011. Available online: http://www.ousa.ca/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Aboriginal-Students.pdf (accessed on 8 November 2012).
- Berry, J.W. Acculturation and adaptation of immigrant youth. Can. Divers. 2008, 6, 50–53. [Google Scholar]
- Berry, J.W. Acculturation: Living successfully in two cultures. Int. J. Intercult. Relat. 2005, 29, 697–712. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Alsaybar, B.D. Deconstructing Deviance: Filipino American Youth Gangs, “Party Culture,” and Ethnic Identity in Los Angeles. In Second Generation: Ethnic Identity among Asian Americans Critical Perspectives on Asian Pacific Americans; Min, P.G., Ed.; AltaMira: Walnut Creek, CA, USA, 2002; pp. 129–152. [Google Scholar]
- Tintiangco-Cubales, A. “For a while now, I’ve been Feeling Neglected ...”: A Preliminary Study on Urban Filipina/o American High School Students. In [email protected] Educational Partnerships: A Filipina/o American Studies Sourcebooks Series Volume 1: Philippine and Filipina/o American History; Tintiangco-Cubales, A., Ed.; Phoenix: Santa Clara, CA, USA, 2007; pp. 29–41. [Google Scholar]
- Kirkness, V.J.; Barnhardt, R. First Nations and Higher Education: The Four R’s—Respect, Relevance, Reciprocity, Responsibility. Available online: http://ankn.uaf.edu/IEW/WINHEC/FourRs2ndEd.html (accessed on 8 November 2012).
- O’Connor, N. Hispanic origin, socioeconomic status and community college enrollment. J. High. Educ. 2009, 80, 121–145. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lightman, E.; Herd, D.; Um, S.; Mitchell, A. Post-secondary education and social assistance in Ontario. Can. Soc. Work Rev. 2009, 26, 97–113. [Google Scholar]
- Mendelson, M. Aboriginal People and Postsecondary Education in Canada; Caledon Institute of Social Policy: Ottawa, Canada, 2006. Available online: http://www.caledoninst.org/Publications/PDF/595ENG.pdf (accessed on 8 November 2012).
- Moustakas, C. Phenomenological Research Methods; Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, 1994. [Google Scholar]
- Van Manen, J. Researching Lived Experience: Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy; The University of Western Ontario: London, Canada, 1990. [Google Scholar]
- Mullaly, R. Challenging Oppression and Confronting Privilege: A Critical Social Work Approach; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Creswell, J.W. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design; Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Jacobs, J.A.; King, R.B. Age and college completion: A life history analysis of women aged 15–44. Sociol. Educ. 2002, 75, 211–230. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jennings, P.K. What mothers want: Welfare reform and maternal desire. J. Sociol. Soc. Welfare 2004, 31, 113–130. [Google Scholar]
- NorQuest College, NorQuest College Calendar 2013–2014; NorQuest College: Edmonton, Canada, 2013.
- Experience and Ruling Relations: Studies in the Social Organization of Knowledge; Campbell, M.; Manicom, A. (Eds.) University of Toronto Press: Toronto, Canada, 1995.
- Torjman, S. Student Aid Meets Social Assistance; Caledon Institute of Social Policy: Ottawa, Canada, 2009. Available online: http://www.caledoninst.org/Publications/PDF/815ENG.pdf (accessed on 8 November 2012).
- Baldwin, R.G.; Baumann, M.J. Options for change: A flexible vehicle for curriculum evolution and reform. Innov. High. Educ. 2005, 30, 89–98. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hardcastle, J. The student as consumer. J. Teach. Soc. Work 1993, 8, 183–196. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dei, G.J.S. Race and the production of identity in the schooling experiences of African-Canadian youth. Discourse 1997, 18, 241–257. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pieterse, A.L.; Carter, R.T. An examination of the relationship between general life stress, racism-related stress and psychological health among black men. J. Couns. Psychol. 2007, 54, 101–109. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Franklin-Jackson, D.; Carter, R.T. The relationships between race-related stress, racial identity, and mental health for Black Americans. J. Black Psychol. 2007, 33, 5–26. [Google Scholar]
- Oppression—A Social Determinant of Health; McGibbon, E.A. (Ed.) Fernwood Publishers: Halifax, Canada, 2012.
- Din-Dzietham, R.; Nembhard, W.N.; Collins, R.; Davis, S.K. Perceived stress following race based discrimination at work is associated with hypertension in African Americans. The metro atlanta heart disease study, 1999–2001. Soc. Sci. Med. 2004, 58, 449–461. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Karlsen, S.; Nazroo, J.Y. Relationship between racial discrimination, social class and health among ethnic minority groups. Am. J. Public Health 2002, 92, 624–631. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Russell, M. Entering great America: Reflections on race and the convergence of progressive legal theory and practice. Hast. Law J. 1992, 43, 749–767. [Google Scholar]
- Solórzano, D.; Ceja, M.; Yosso, T. Critical race theory, racial microaggressions, and campus racial climate: The experiences of African American college students. J. Negro Educ. 2000, 69, 60–73. [Google Scholar]
- Sue, D.; Capodilupo, C.M.; Torino, G.C.; Bucceri, I.M.; Holder, A.M.B.; Nadal, K.L.; Esquilin, M. Racial microaggressions in everyday life: Implications for clinical practice. Am. Psychol. 2007, 62, 271–286. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fuligni, A.J.; Witkow, M.; Garcia, C. Ethnic identity and the academic adjustment of adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds. Dev. Psychol. 2005, 41, 799–811. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wong, C.A.; Eccles, J.; Sameroff, A.J. The influence of ethnic discrimination and ethnic identification on African American adolescents’ school and socio-emotional adjustment. J. Pers. 2003, 71, 1197–1232. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Lundberg, C.A. Student involvement and institutional commitment to diversity as predictors of North American student learning. J. Coll. Stud. Dev. 2007, 48, 405–417. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Oritz, L.; Jani, J. Critical race theory: A transformational model for teaching diversity. J. Soc. Word Educ. 2010, 46, 175–193. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Shanahan, T.; Jones, G. Shifting roles and approaches: Government coordination of postsecondary education in Canada from 1995 to 2006. J. High. Educ. Res. Dev. 2007, 26, 31–43. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nylund, D. Critical multiculturalism, whiteness, and social work: Towards a more radical view of cultural competence. J. Progr. Hum. Serv. 2006, 17, 27–42. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
© 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).