Next Article in Journal
Neurotoxicity of Acrylamide in Exposed Workers
Previous Article in Journal
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews and Cultural Safety Transforming Sexual Assault Service Provision for Children and Young People
Open AccessCommunication

Optimal Method to Stimulate Cytokine Production and Its Use in Immunotoxicity Assessment

Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100123, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 3834-3842; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10093834
Received: 18 June 2013 / Revised: 7 August 2013 / Accepted: 15 August 2013 / Published: 27 August 2013
Activation of lymphocytes can effectively produce a large amount of cytokines. The types of cytokines produced may depend on stimulating reagents and treatments. To find an optimal method to stimulate cytokine production and evaluate its effect on immunotoxicity assessments, the authors analyzed production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, GM-CSF, RANTES and TGF-β in undiluted rat whole blood culture (incubation for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 h) with different concentrations of PMA/ionomycin, PHA, Con A, LPS and PWM. We also evaluated the effects of cyclosporin A and azathioprine on cytokine production. The results revealed a rapid increase of IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, RANTES and TGF-β secretion within 6 h after stimulation with 25 ng/mL PMA and 1 μg/mL ionomycin. The inhibition of these cytokine profiles reflected the effects of immunosuppressants on the immune system. Therefore, the results of this is study recommend the detection of cytokine profiles in undiluted whole blood stimulated 6 h with 25 ng/mL PMA and 1 μg/mL ionomycin as a powerful immunotoxicity assessment method. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunotoxicity assessment; cytokines; whole blood; immunosuppressant immunotoxicity assessment; cytokines; whole blood; immunosuppressant
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ai, W.; Li, H.; Song, N.; Li, L.; Chen, H. Optimal Method to Stimulate Cytokine Production and Its Use in Immunotoxicity Assessment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 3834-3842.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop