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Maternal Exposure to Bisphenol-A and Fetal Growth Restriction: A Case-Referent Study
Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G3, Canada
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2B7, Canada
School of Public Health, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 1C9, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 November 2013; in revised form: 25 November 2013 / Accepted: 29 November 2013 / Published: 11 December 2013
Abstract: We conducted a case-referent study of the effect of exposure to bisphenol-A on fetal growth in utero in full-term, live-born singletons in Alberta, Canada. Newborns <10 percentile of expected weight for gestational age and sex were individually matched on sex, maternal smoking and maternal age to referents with weight appropriate to gestational age. Exposure of the fetus to bisphenol-A was estimated from maternal serum collected at 15–16 weeks of gestation. We pooled sera across subjects for exposure assessment, stratified on case-referent status and sex. Individual 1:1 matching was maintained in assembling 69 case and 69 referent pools created from 550 case-referent pairs. Matched pools had an equal number of aliquots from individual women. We used an analytical strategy conditioning on matched set and total pool-level values of covariates to estimate individual-level effects. Pools of cases and referents had identical geometric mean bisphenol-A concentrations (0.5 ng/mL) and similar geometric standard deviations (2.3–2.5). Mean difference in concentration between matched pools was 0 ng/mL, standard deviation: 1 ng/mL. Stratification by sex and control for confounding did not suggest bisphenol-A increased fetal growth restriction. Our analysis does not provide evidence to support the hypothesis that bisphenol-A contributes to fetal growth restriction in full-term singletons.
Keywords: BPA; endocrine disruption; small for gestation age; birth weight; epidemiology
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Burstyn, I.; Martin, J.W.; Beesoon, S.; Bamforth, F.; Li, Q.; Yasui, Y.; Cherry, N.M. Maternal Exposure to Bisphenol-A and Fetal Growth Restriction: A Case-Referent Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 7001-7014.
Burstyn I, Martin JW, Beesoon S, Bamforth F, Li Q, Yasui Y, Cherry NM. Maternal Exposure to Bisphenol-A and Fetal Growth Restriction: A Case-Referent Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(12):7001-7014.
Burstyn, Igor; Martin, Jonathan W.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Bamforth, Fiona; Li, Qiaozhi; Yasui, Yutaka; Cherry, Nicola M. 2013. "Maternal Exposure to Bisphenol-A and Fetal Growth Restriction: A Case-Referent Study." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 12: 7001-7014.