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Community Perceptions of Air Pollution and Related Health Risks in Nairobi Slums
African Population and Health Research Center, P.O. Box 10787, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Umeå University, Umeå SE-901 85, Sweden
Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Amsterdam 1100 DE, The Netherlands
Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 July 2013; in revised form: 9 September 2013 / Accepted: 10 September 2013 / Published: 11 October 2013
Abstract: Air pollution is among the leading global risks for mortality and responsible for increasing risk for chronic diseases. Community perceptions on exposure are critical in determining people’s response and acceptance of related policies. Therefore, understanding people’ perception is critical in informing the design of appropriate intervention measures. The aim of this paper was to establish levels and associations between perceived pollution and health risk perception among slum residents. A cross-sectional study of 5,317 individuals aged 35+ years was conducted in two slums of Nairobi. Association of perceived score and individual characteristics was assessed using linear regression. Spatial variation in the perceived levels was determined through hot spot analysis using ArcGIS. The average perceived air pollution level was higher among residents in Viwandani compared to those in Korogocho. Perceived air pollution level was positively associated with perceived health risks. The majority of respondents were exposed to air pollution in their place of work with 66% exposed to at least two sources of air pollution. Less than 20% of the respondents in both areas mentioned sources related to indoor pollution. The perceived air pollution level and related health risks in the study community were low among the residents indicating the need for promoting awareness on air pollution sources and related health risks.
Keywords: perceived air quality; air pollution; perceived health risk; urban slum
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Egondi, T.; Kyobutungi, C.; Ng, N.; Muindi, K.; Oti, S.; Vijver, S.; Ettarh, R.; Rocklöv, J. Community Perceptions of Air Pollution and Related Health Risks in Nairobi Slums. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 4851-4868.
Egondi T, Kyobutungi C, Ng N, Muindi K, Oti S, Vijver S, Ettarh R, Rocklöv J. Community Perceptions of Air Pollution and Related Health Risks in Nairobi Slums. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(10):4851-4868.
Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ng, Nawi; Muindi, Kanyiva; Oti, Samuel; Vijver, Steven ; Ettarh, Remare; Rocklöv, Joacim. 2013. "Community Perceptions of Air Pollution and Related Health Risks in Nairobi Slums." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 10: 4851-4868.