Next Article in Journal
Effects of Long-Term Exposure of the Red Swamp Crawfish Procambarus clarkii to a Mixture of Two Herbicides, 2,4-Dichloro-phenoxyacetic Acid and Monosodium Methanearsonate, and Associated Human Health Risks
Previous Article in Journal
Investigation into the Nephrotoxicity of Nigerian Bonny Light Crude Oil in Albino Rats
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1(2), 111-123;

Freshwater Microcosms-Based Assessment of Eco-toxicological Effects of a Chemical Effluent from the Pilcam Industry in Cameroon

Laboratory of General Biology, Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 812, Cameroon
Molecular Toxicology Research Laboratory, NIH-Center for Environmental Health, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Jackson State University, 1400 Lynch Street, P.O. Box 18540, Jackson, Mississippi, USA
Laboratory of Animal Biology, University of Dschang, Cameroon
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 January 2004 / Accepted: 16 June 2004 / Published: 30 September 2004
Full-Text   |   PDF [369 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |  


We studied the acute toxicity of a raw effluent from a battery manufacturing plant (Pilcam) in Douala, Cameroon, to a freshwater fish (Oreochromis niloticus), and subsequently evaluated its sub-acute effects on water quality and the biota in freshwater microscosms. The acute toxicity test was based on 96 hrs static renewal bioassays that resulted in 96-h LC50 and LC90 values of 16 and 20.7% (v/v), respectively. The sub-acute experiments were conducted by exposing several species of aquatic organisms (plankton, macro-invertebrates and mollusks) to lower effluent concentrations [1.6%, 8.0%, 16% (v/v)] for six weeks, and monitoring their survival rates, as well as the physical and chemical characteristics of water. These concentrations were based on 10%, 50%, and 100% of the 96 h - median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the effluent to the freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Significant effects on functional parameters, such as, chlorophyll-a and total protein could not be demonstrated. However, the activity of alkaline phosphatase was significantly inhibited at all concentrations tested. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, macro-invertebrate communities and snails were negatively affected by the effluent application at concentrations ≥ 8% (v/v), with chlorophyta, ciliates, ostracoda, annelida, planaria and snails being the most sensitive groups. The snails were eliminated after 24 h exposure from microcosms treated with effluent at concentration ≥ 8% (v/v). Effluent exposure also caused significant effects on water quality parameters (DO, pH, hardness, conductivity, color, turbidity, ammonia) in general at concentrations ≥ 8% (v/v). Temperature and alkalinity were not significantly affected. Overall, data from this research indicate that a dilution of the Pilcam effluent down to 1.6% does not provide protection against chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms. Further studies are needed to determine the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL), as well as a chronic reference concentration for this effluent. View Full-Text
Keywords: Industrial chemical effluent; aquatic microcosm; ecotoxicological effects; water quality Industrial chemical effluent; aquatic microcosm; ecotoxicological effects; water quality

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Monkiedje, A.; Njine, T.; Meyabeme Elono, A.L.; Zebaze, S.H.; Kemka, N.; Tchounwou, P.B.; Djomo, J.E. Freshwater Microcosms-Based Assessment of Eco-toxicological Effects of a Chemical Effluent from the Pilcam Industry in Cameroon. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1, 111-123.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top