Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Characterization of Intracellular and Extracellular Saxitoxin Levels in Both Field and Cultured Alexandrium spp. Samples from Sequim Bay, Washington
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning: A Review on the Chemistry, Ecology, and Toxicology with an Emphasis on Human Health Impacts
Open AccessReview

Yessotoxins, a Group of Marine Polyether Toxins: an Overview

Fitoplancton Tóxico, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (CSIC), Eduardo Cabello 6, 36080 Vigo and Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Centro Oceanográfico de Vigo (IEO), Cabo Estay, 36200 Vigo, Spain
Instituto Universitario de Bio-Orgánica “Antonio González”, Universidad de La Laguna, Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Tecnología Farmacéutica; Universidad de La Laguna; Av. Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez s/n, 38071, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2008, 6(2), 73-102;
Received: 5 December 2007 / Revised: 27 February 2008 / Accepted: 5 March 2008 / Published: 7 May 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Toxins)
PDF [383 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]


Yessotoxin (YTX) is a marine polyether toxin that was first isolated in 1986 from the scallop Patinopecten yessoensis. Subsequently, it was reported that YTX is produced by the dinoflagellates Protoceratium reticulatum, Lingulodinium polyedrum and Gonyaulax spinifera. YTXs have been associated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) because they are often simultaneously extracted with DSP toxins, and give positive results when tested in the conventional mouse bioassay for DSP toxins. However, recent evidence suggests that YTXs should be excluded from the DSP toxins group, because unlike okadaic acid (OA) and dinophyisistoxin-1 (DTX-1), YTXs do not cause either diarrhea or inhibition of protein phosphatases . In spite of the increasing number of molecular studies focused on the toxicity of YTX, the precise mechanism of action is currently unknown. Since the discovery of YTX, almost forty new analogues isolated from both mussels and dinoflagellates have been characterized by NMR or LC-MS/MS techniques. These studies indicate a wide variability in the profile and the relative abundance of YTXs in both, bivalves and dinoflagellates. This review covers current knowledge on the origin, producer organisms and vectors, chemical structures, metabolism, biosynthetic origin, toxicological properties, potential risks to human health and advances in detection methods of YTXs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Yessotoxin (YTX); Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP); Marine polyether toxin; Protoceratium reticulatum; Lingulodinium polyedrum; Gonyaulax spinifera. Yessotoxin (YTX); Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP); Marine polyether toxin; Protoceratium reticulatum; Lingulodinium polyedrum; Gonyaulax spinifera.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Paz, B.; Daranas, A.H.; Norte, M.; Riobó, P.; Franco, J.M.; Fernández, J.J. Yessotoxins, a Group of Marine Polyether Toxins: an Overview. Mar. Drugs 2008, 6, 73-102.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top