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Article

Astaxanthin Mitigates Thiacloprid-Induced Liver Injury and Immunotoxicity in Male Rats

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Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sadat City, Sadat 6012201, Egypt
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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza 12211, Egypt
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Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sadat City, Sadat 6012201, Egypt
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School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, 62024 Matelica, Italy
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Department of Poultry, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt
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Forensic Medicine and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christos Tsatsanis
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(9), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19090525
Received: 31 August 2021 / Revised: 15 September 2021 / Accepted: 16 September 2021 / Published: 18 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products Modulating the Immune System)
Thiacloprid (TCP) is a widely used neonicotinoid insecticide with a probable toxic hazard to animals and human beings. This hazard has intensified the demand for natural compounds to alleviate the expected toxic insults. This study aimed at determining whether astaxanthin (ASX) could mitigate the hepatotoxic effect of TCP and diminish its suppressive effect on immune responses in rats. Animals received TCP by gavage at 62.1 mg/kg (1/10th LD50) with or without ASX at 40 mg/kg for 60 days. Intoxicated rats showed modulation of serum transaminases and protein profiles. The hemagglutination antibody titer to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and the number of plaque-forming cells in the spleen were reduced. The cell-mediated immunity and phagocytosis were suppressed, while serum interleukins IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 were elevated. Additionally, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine levels were increased in the liver, spleen, and thymus, with depletion of glutathione and suppression of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and the high mobility group box protein 1 genes were upregulated with histomorphological alterations in the aforementioned organs. Cotreatment with ASX markedly ameliorated the toxic effects of TCP, and all markers showed a regression trend towards control values. Collectively, our data suggest that the protective effects of ASX on the liver and immune system of TCP-treated animals depend upon improving the antioxidant status and relieving the inflammatory response, and thus it may be used as a promising therapeutic agent to provide superior hepato- and immunoprotection. View Full-Text
Keywords: thiacloprid; astaxanthin; immunity; oxidative stress; high mobility group box protein 1; inducible nitric oxide synthase thiacloprid; astaxanthin; immunity; oxidative stress; high mobility group box protein 1; inducible nitric oxide synthase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abou-Zeid, S.M.; Aljuaydi, S.H.; AbuBakr, H.O.; Tahoun, E.A.; Di Cerbo, A.; Alagawany, M.; Khalil, S.R.; Farag, M.R. Astaxanthin Mitigates Thiacloprid-Induced Liver Injury and Immunotoxicity in Male Rats. Mar. Drugs 2021, 19, 525. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19090525

AMA Style

Abou-Zeid SM, Aljuaydi SH, AbuBakr HO, Tahoun EA, Di Cerbo A, Alagawany M, Khalil SR, Farag MR. Astaxanthin Mitigates Thiacloprid-Induced Liver Injury and Immunotoxicity in Male Rats. Marine Drugs. 2021; 19(9):525. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19090525

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abou-Zeid, Shimaa M., Samira H. Aljuaydi, Huda O. AbuBakr, Enas A. Tahoun, Alessandro Di Cerbo, Mahmoud Alagawany, Samah R. Khalil, and Mayada R. Farag. 2021. "Astaxanthin Mitigates Thiacloprid-Induced Liver Injury and Immunotoxicity in Male Rats" Marine Drugs 19, no. 9: 525. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19090525

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