Next Article in Journal
Marine-Derived Macrocyclic Alkaloids (MDMAs): Chemical and Biological Diversity
Previous Article in Journal
Integrating Molecular Networking and 1H NMR Spectroscopy for Isolation of Bioactive Metabolites from the Persian Gulf Sponge Axinella sinoxea
 
 
Article

Comprehensive GCMS and LC-MS/MS Metabolite Profiling of Chlorella vulgaris

1
Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Faculty of Science and Engineering, Soka University, 1-236 Tangi-machi, Hachioji City, Tokyo 192-8577, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(7), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18070367
Received: 18 March 2020 / Revised: 7 April 2020 / Accepted: 24 April 2020 / Published: 17 July 2020
The commercial cultivation of microalgae began in the 1960s and Chlorella was one of the first target organisms. The species has long been considered a potential source of renewable energy, an alternative for phytoremediation, and more recently, as a growth and immune stimulant. However, Chlorella vulgaris, which is one of the most studied microalga, has never been comprehensively profiled chemically. In the present study, comprehensive profiling of the Chlorella vulgaris metabolome grown under normal culture conditions was carried out, employing tandem LC-MS/MS to profile the ethanolic extract and GC-MS for fatty acid analysis. The fatty acid profile of C. vulgaris was shown to be rich in omega-6, -7, -9, and -13 fatty acids, with omega-6 being the highest, representing more than sixty percent (>60%) of the total fatty acids. This is a clear indication that this species of Chlorella could serve as a good source of nutrition when incorporated in diets. The profile also showed that the main fatty acid composition was that of C16-C18 (>92%), suggesting that it might be a potential candidate for biodiesel production. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed carotenoid constituents comprising violaxanthin, neoxanthin, lutein, β-carotene, vulgaxanthin I, astaxanthin, and antheraxanthin, along with other pigments such as the chlorophylls. In addition to these, amino acids, vitamins, and simple sugars were also profiled, and through mass spectrometry-based molecular networking, 48 phospholipids were putatively identified. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris; biodiesel; phytoremediation; molecular networking; pigments Chlorella vulgaris; biodiesel; phytoremediation; molecular networking; pigments
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Pantami, H.A.; Ahamad Bustamam, M.S.; Lee, S.Y.; Ismail, I.S.; Mohd Faudzi, S.M.; Nakakuni, M.; Shaari, K. Comprehensive GCMS and LC-MS/MS Metabolite Profiling of Chlorella vulgaris. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 367. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18070367

AMA Style

Pantami HA, Ahamad Bustamam MS, Lee SY, Ismail IS, Mohd Faudzi SM, Nakakuni M, Shaari K. Comprehensive GCMS and LC-MS/MS Metabolite Profiling of Chlorella vulgaris. Marine Drugs. 2020; 18(7):367. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18070367

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pantami, Hamza Ahmed, Muhammad Safwan Ahamad Bustamam, Soo Yee Lee, Intan Safinar Ismail, Siti Munirah Mohd Faudzi, Masatoshi Nakakuni, and Khozirah Shaari. 2020. "Comprehensive GCMS and LC-MS/MS Metabolite Profiling of Chlorella vulgaris" Marine Drugs 18, no. 7: 367. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18070367

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop