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Protective Effect of Fucoidan against MPP+-Induced SH-SY5Y Cells Apoptosis by Affecting the PI3K/Akt Pathway
Open AccessArticle

Degradation of Sargassum crassifolium Fucoidan by Ascorbic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide, and Compositional, Structural, and In Vitro Anti-Lung Cancer Analyses of the Degradation Products

1
Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Tzyou 1st Rd., Sanmin District, Kaohsiung City 80708, Taiwan
2
Department of Nutrition, I-Shou University (Yanchao Campus), No. 8, Yida Rd., Jiaosu Village, Yanchao District, Kaohsiung City 82445, Taiwan
3
Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, No. 142, Haijhuan Rd., Nanzih District, Kaohsiung City 81157, Taiwan
4
Department of Nursing, Mackay Medical College, No. 46, Sec. 3, Zhongzheng Rd., Sanzhi District, New Taipei City 25245, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(6), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18060334
Received: 9 May 2020 / Revised: 20 June 2020 / Accepted: 24 June 2020 / Published: 26 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fucoidans)
Fucoidans possess multiple biological functions including anti-cancer activity. Moreover, low-molecular-weight fucoidans are reported to possess more bioactivities than native fucoidans. In the present study, a native fucoidan (SC) was extracted from Sargassum crassifolium pretreated by single-screw extrusion, and three degraded fucoidans, namely, SCA (degradation of SC by ascorbic acid), SCH (degradation of SC by hydrogen peroxide), and SCAH (degradation of SC by ascorbic acid + hydrogen peroxide), were produced. The extrusion pretreatment can increase the extraction yield of fucoidan by approximately 4.2-fold as compared to the non-extruded sample. Among SC, SCA, SCH, and SCAH, the chemical compositions varied but structural features were similar. SC, SCA, SCH, and SCAH showed apoptotic effects on human lung carcinoma A-549 cells, as illustrated by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), decreased B-cell leukemia-2 (Bcl-2) expression, increased cytochrome c release, increased active caspase-9 and -3, and increased late apoptosis of A-549 cells. In general, SCA was found to exhibit high cytotoxicity to A-549 cells and a strong ability to suppress Bcl-2 expression. SCA also showed high efficacy to induce cytochrome c release, activate caspase-9 and -3, and promote late apoptosis of A-549 cells. Therefore, our data suggest that SCA could have an adjuvant therapeutic potential in the treatment of lung cancer. Additionally, we explored that the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is involved in SC-, SCA-, SCH-, and SCAH-induced apoptosis of A-549 cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: ascorbic acid; anti-lung cancer; apoptosis; brown algae; fucoidan; human lung carcinoma A-549 cells; hydrogen peroxide; Sargassum crassifolium ascorbic acid; anti-lung cancer; apoptosis; brown algae; fucoidan; human lung carcinoma A-549 cells; hydrogen peroxide; Sargassum crassifolium
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Wu, T.-C.; Hong, Y.-H.; Tsai, Y.-H.; Hsieh, S.-L.; Huang, R.-H.; Kuo, C.-H.; Huang, C.-Y. Degradation of Sargassum crassifolium Fucoidan by Ascorbic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide, and Compositional, Structural, and In Vitro Anti-Lung Cancer Analyses of the Degradation Products. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 334.

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