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Open AccessArticle

Optimisation of Ultrasound Frequency, Extraction Time and Solvent for the Recovery of Polyphenols, Phlorotannins and Associated Antioxidant Activity from Brown Seaweeds

1
School of Biosystems and Food Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, D04 V1W8 Dublin, Ireland
2
Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, D15 DY05 Dublin, Ireland
3
School of Food Science and Environmental Health, College of Sciences and Health, Technological University Dublin—City Campus, Grangegorman, D07 EWV4 Dublin, Ireland
4
School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, D04 V1W8 Dublin, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(5), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18050250
Received: 14 April 2020 / Revised: 4 May 2020 / Accepted: 6 May 2020 / Published: 11 May 2020
This study investigates ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) process parameters (time, frequency and solvent) to obtain high yields of phlorotannins, flavonoids, total phenolics and associated antioxidant activities from 11 brown seaweed species. Optimised UAE conditions (35 kHz, 30 min and 50% ethanol) significantly improved the extraction yield from 1.5-fold to 2.2-fold in all seaweeds investigated compared to solvent extraction. Using ultrasound, the highest recovery of total phenolics (TPC: 572.3 ± 3.2 mg gallic acid equivalent/g), total phlorotannins (TPhC: 476.3 ± 2.2 mg phloroglucinol equivalent/g) and total flavonoids (TFC: 281.0 ± 1.7 mg quercetin equivalent/g) was obtained from Fucus vesiculosus seaweed. While the lowest recovery of TPC (72.6 ± 2.9 mg GAE/g), TPhC (50.3 ± 2.0 mg PGE/g) and TFC (15.2 ± 3.3 mg QE/g) was obtained from Laminaria digitata seaweed. However, extracts from Fucus serratus obtained by UAE exhibited the strongest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity (29.1 ± 0.25 mg trolox equivalent/g) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value (63.9 ± 0.74 mg trolox equivalent/g). UAE under optimised conditions was an effective, low-cost and eco-friendly technique to recover biologically active polyphenols from 11 brown seaweed species. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrasound assisted extraction; conventional extraction; polyphenols; phlorotannin; macroalgae; antioxidant capacity ultrasound assisted extraction; conventional extraction; polyphenols; phlorotannin; macroalgae; antioxidant capacity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ummat, V.; Tiwari, B.K.; Jaiswal, A.K.; Condon, K.; Garcia-Vaquero, M.; O’Doherty, J.; O’Donnell, C.; Rajauria, G. Optimisation of Ultrasound Frequency, Extraction Time and Solvent for the Recovery of Polyphenols, Phlorotannins and Associated Antioxidant Activity from Brown Seaweeds. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 250.

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