Next Article in Journal
Promise from the Sea
Next Article in Special Issue
Development and Characterization of VEGF165-Chitosan Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Radiation-Induced Skin Injury in Rats
Previous Article in Journal
Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Anti-Hypertensive Effect of Protein Hydrolysate from Actinopyga lecanora (Sea Cucumber) in Rats
Previous Article in Special Issue
Novel Spray Dried Glycerol 2-Phosphate Cross-Linked Chitosan Microparticulate Vaginal Delivery System—Development, Characterization and Cytotoxicity Studies
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(10), 175;

Controlling Properties and Cytotoxicity of Chitosan Nanocapsules by Chemical Grafting

Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, Edificio I+D, calle Mariano Esquillor s/n, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain
Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, Edificio I+D, calle Mariano Esquillor s/n, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain
Istituto di Scienze Applicate e Sistemi Intelligenti “E. Caianiello”, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pozzuoli 80078, Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: David Harding and Hitoshi Sashiwa
Received: 28 July 2016 / Revised: 14 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 September 2016 / Published: 30 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan II, 2017)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3027 KB, uploaded 30 September 2016]   |  


The tunability of the properties of chitosan-based carriers opens new ways for the application of drugs with low water-stability or high adverse effects. In this work, the combination of a nanoemulsion with a chitosan hydrogel coating and the following poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafting is proven to be a promising strategy to obtain a flexible and versatile nanocarrier with an improved stability. Thanks to chitosan amino groups, a new easy and reproducible method to obtain nanocapsule grafting with PEG has been developed in this work, allowing a very good control and tunability of the properties of nanocapsule surface. Two different PEG densities of coverage are studied and the nanocapsule systems obtained are characterized at all steps of the optimization in terms of diameter, Z potential and surface charge (amino group analysis). Results obtained are compatible with a conformation of PEG molecules laying adsorbed on nanoparticle surface after covalent linking through their amino terminal moiety. An improvement in nanocapsule stability in physiological medium is observed with the highest PEG coverage density obtained. Cytotoxicity tests also demonstrate that grafting with PEG is an effective strategy to modulate the cytotoxicity of developed nanocapsules. Such results indicate the suitability of chitosan as protective coating for future studies oriented toward drug delivery. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; hydrogel; surface grafting; nanocapsules; stability chitosan; hydrogel; surface grafting; nanocapsules; stability

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

De Matteis, L.; Alleva, M.; Serrano-Sevilla, I.; García-Embid, S.; Stepien, G.; Moros, M.; de la Fuente, J.M. Controlling Properties and Cytotoxicity of Chitosan Nanocapsules by Chemical Grafting. Mar. Drugs 2016, 14, 175.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top