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Fucoxanthin and Its Metabolite Fucoxanthinol in Cancer Prevention and Treatment

Biology Department, Université de Moncton, Moncton, NB E1A 3E9, Canada
Academic Editor: Peer B. Jacobson
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(8), 4784-4798; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13084784
Received: 4 June 2015 / Revised: 25 June 2015 / Accepted: 27 July 2015 / Published: 31 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)
Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid present in the chloroplasts of brown seaweeds. When ingested, it is metabolized mainly to fucoxanthinol by digestive enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract. These compounds have been shown to have many beneficial health effects, including anti-mutagenic, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic actions. In every cancer tested, modulatory actions of fucoxanthinol on viability, cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis and members of the NF-κB pathway were more pronounced than that of fucoxanthin. Anti-proliferative and cancer preventing influences of fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol are mediated through different signalling pathways, including the caspases, Bcl-2 proteins, MAPK, PI3K/Akt, JAK/STAT, AP-1, GADD45, and several other molecules that are involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, anti-angiogenesis or inhibition of metastasis. In this review, we address the mechanisms of action of fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol according to different types of cancers. Current findings suggest that these compounds could be effective for treatment and/or prevention of cancer development and aggressiveness. View Full-Text
Keywords: fucoxanthin; fucoxanthinol; viability; apoptosis; cancer fucoxanthin; fucoxanthinol; viability; apoptosis; cancer
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Martin, L.J. Fucoxanthin and Its Metabolite Fucoxanthinol in Cancer Prevention and Treatment. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 4784-4798.

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