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Marine Bioactives and Potential Application in Sports

1
Human and Clinical Nutrition Unit, Department of Biomedical Science, Via Dei Vestini, University G. D'Annunzio, Chieti 66013, Italy
2
Cardiology Unit, San Camillo De Lellis Hospital, Manfredonia, FG 71043, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(5), 2357-2382; https://doi.org/10.3390/md12052357
Received: 10 October 2013 / Revised: 24 March 2014 / Accepted: 26 March 2014 / Published: 30 April 2014
An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP), such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-κB), macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS) production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine bioactives; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species; antioxidants; sports marine bioactives; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species; antioxidants; sports
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Gammone, M.A.; Gemello, E.; Riccioni, G.; D'Orazio, N. Marine Bioactives and Potential Application in Sports. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 2357-2382.

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