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Review

Gene Regulation and Transcriptomics

1
Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA
2
Department of Biology, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, CO 80918, USA
3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN4 6202, USA
4
Department of Molecular Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
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Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, Omaha, NE 68105, USA
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Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of Kentucky School of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
7
Departments of Medicine, Pediatrics, and Molecular Biology and Biophysics, UConn Health, Farmington, CT, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 42(1), 223-266; https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.042.223
Received: 16 September 2020 / Revised: 15 October 2020 / Accepted: 11 November 2020 / Published: 10 December 2020
Borrelia (Borreliella) burgdorferi, along with closely related species, is the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. The spirochete subsists in an enzootic cycle that encompasses acquisition from a vertebrate host to a tick vector and transmission from a tick vector to a vertebrate host. To adapt to its environment and persist in each phase of its enzootic cycle, B. burgdorferi wields three systems to regulate the expression of genes: the RpoN-RpoS alternative sigma (σ) factor cascade, the Hk1/Rrp1 two-component system and its product c-di-GMP, and the stringent response mediated by RelBbu and DksA. These regulatory systems respond to enzootic phase-specific signals and are controlled or fine- tuned by transcription factors, including BosR and BadR, as well as small RNAs, including DsrABb and Bb6S RNA. In addition, several other DNA-binding and RNA-binding proteins have been identified, although their functions have not all been defined. Global changes in gene expression revealed by high-throughput transcriptomic studies have elucidated various regulons, albeit technical obstacles have mostly limited this experimental approach to cultivated spirochetes. Regardless, we know that the spirochete, which carries a relatively small genome, regulates the expression of a considerable number of genes required for the transitions between the tick vector and the vertebrate host as well as the adaptation to each.
MDPI and ACS Style

Samuels, D.S.; Lybecker, M.C.; Yang, X.F.; Ouyang, Z.; Bourret, T.J.; Boyle, W.K.; Stevenson, B.; Drecktrah, D.; Caimano, M.J. Gene Regulation and Transcriptomics. Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 42, 223-266. https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.042.223

AMA Style

Samuels DS, Lybecker MC, Yang XF, Ouyang Z, Bourret TJ, Boyle WK, Stevenson B, Drecktrah D, Caimano MJ. Gene Regulation and Transcriptomics. Current Issues in Molecular Biology. 2021; 42(1):223-266. https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.042.223

Chicago/Turabian Style

Samuels, D. Scott, Meghan C. Lybecker, X. Frank Yang, Zhiming Ouyang, Travis J. Bourret, William K. Boyle, Brian Stevenson, Dan Drecktrah, and Melissa J. Caimano 2021. "Gene Regulation and Transcriptomics" Current Issues in Molecular Biology 42, no. 1: 223-266. https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.042.223

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