Special Issue "Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research"
A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 December 2013
Dr. Marc Maresca
Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, iSm2 UMR 7313, Marseille 13397, France
Interests: gut physiology; intestinal epithelial cells; intestinal toxicology ; enterotoxins; bacterial toxins; virotoxins; mycotoxins; trichothecenes; deoxynivalenol; nutrient absorption
From many years, the food-associated trichothecene mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol (DON or vomitoxin) has attracted the attention of scientists (http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/5/4/784). This is due for part to its high prevalence in animal/human food and feed products as demonstrated through the successful use of urinary biomarkers confirming the exposure of humans to substantial doses of this toxin. DON is also one of the most hazardous mycotoxins, this toxin affecting the functions of nervous, endocrine, immune and intestinal cells. In addition to its toxicity to animal cells (that could be considered as a collateral damage), DON is also known to affect plant cells functions, such effects certainly playing a role during the colonization of wheat and cereals by DON-producing fungi such as Fusarium species. The toxicity of DON seems to depend on the presence an epoxide function allowing its binding to ribosomes, causing the so-called “ribotoxic stress” effect, the activation of specific kinases (including PKR and MAP kinases) and eventually leading to the inhibition of the protein synthesis and to cell death. Due to its ability to activate PKR and MAP kinases, DON also acts as a proinflammatory signal at low doses whereas higher doses are immunosuppressive due to cellular toxicity. In animals, in addition to affect the systemic and the intestinal immunity, DON also impacts the functions of the brain and endocrine cells, causing anorexia and vomiting. Food not only contains native toxin, but also large amounts of plant and fungal derivatives of DON (including the fungal metabolites 3 and 15 acetyl-DON (3 and 15ADON) and the plant derivative 3-O-glucoside-DON (D3G)) and possibly, although no study has yet confirmed it, of animal derivatives (i.e., 3 and 15-glucuronide DON) potentially present in meat and animal-derived products. New DON derivatives were furthermore recently found in plants and food products, including DON-oligoglycosides, DON-glutathione, DON-S-Cysteine, DON-S-Cysteinyl-glycine, DON-sulfonate. Although previous research has brought light on the mechanisms of action of DON, important questions remain. For example, little is known on the ability of the fungi to be transmitted from the soil to the cereals and on the levels of DON and DON metabolites in different plant tissues during natural and experimental contamination. Data on the effects of DON and its metabolites on plant cells are also scarce. Similarly, how DON enters the cells (animal or plant cells) and how it binds / acts on ribosomes is not perfectly characterized. Finally, if ribosomes are the only target of DON, how the toxin could activate different kinases depending of the dose of toxin remains a mystery. We hope some of these questions will be answered in this special issue focusing on one of the most studied and relevant food-associated mycotoxin.
Dr. Marc Maresca
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.
- cell entry
- cell effect
- DON derivative
Review: From the Gut to the Brain: Journey and Pathophysiological Effects of the Food-Associated Trichothecene Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol
Toxins 2013, 5(4), 784-820; doi:10.3390/toxins5040784
Received: 25 February 2013; in revised form: 11 April 2013 / Accepted: 12 April 2013 / Published: 23 April 2013| Download PDF Full-text (2006 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Article: Correlation of ATP Citrate Lyase and Acetyl CoA Levels with Trichothecene Production in Fusarium graminearum
Toxins 2013, 5(11), 2258-2269; doi:10.3390/toxins5112258
Received: 1 November 2013; in revised form: 18 November 2013 / Accepted: 18 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013| Download PDF Full-text (405 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Article: The Expression of Type-1 and Type-2 Nitric Oxide Synthase in Selected Tissues of the Gastrointestinal Tract during Mixed Mycotoxicosis
Toxins 2013, 5(11), 2281-2292; doi:10.3390/toxins5112281
Received: 11 October 2013; in revised form: 12 November 2013 / Accepted: 18 November 2013 / Published: 22 November 2013| Download PDF Full-text (943 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Article: Exposure Assessment for Italian Population Groups to Deoxynivalenol Deriving from Pasta Consumption
Toxins 2013, 5(12), 2293-2309; doi:10.3390/toxins5122293
Received: 17 October 2013; in revised form: 18 November 2013 / Accepted: 19 November 2013 / Published: 26 November 2013| Download PDF Full-text (272 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Article: Deoxynivanelol and Fumonisin, Alone or in Combination, Induce Changes on Intestinal Junction Complexes and in E-Cadherin Expression
Toxins 2013, 5(12), 2341-2352; doi:10.3390/toxins5122341
Received: 11 October 2013; in revised form: 10 November 2013 / Accepted: 13 November 2013 / Published: 28 November 2013| Download PDF Full-text (723 KB) | Download XML Full-text
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Light Influences How the Fungal Toxin Deoxynivalenol Affects Plant Cell Death and Defence Responses
Authors: Khairul I. Ansari 1,*, Siamsa Doyle, Mojibur R. Khan, Stephanie Walter 2, Josephine M. Brennan 3, Chanemougasoundharam Arunachalam, Paul F. McCabe and Fiona M. Doohan *
Affiliations: UCD Earth Institute and School of Biology and Environmental Science, College of Life Sciences, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland; * E-Mail: email@example.com (K.I.A.)
1 Present address: Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Arlington, 700 Planetarium Place, Rm 349CPB, Arlington. Texas 76019, USA
2 Present address: Department of Integrated Pest Management, Research Centre Flakkebjerg, Forsøgsvej 1, DK-4200 Slagelse, Denmark
3 Present address: Plant Health Laboratory, Department of Agriculture and Food, Backweston, Co. Kildare, Ireland
Abstract: The Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) can cause cell death in wheat (Triticum aestivum), but can also reduce the level of cell death caused by heat shock in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cell cultures. We show that 10 ug ml-1 DON does not cause cell death in Arabidopsis cell cultures, and its ability to retard heat-induced cell death is light-dependent. Under dark conditions, it actually promoted heat-induced cell death. Wheat cultivars differ in their ability to resist this toxin, and we investigated if the ability of wheat to mount defence responses was light-dependent. We found no evidence that light affected the transcription of defence genes in DON-treated roots of seedlings of two wheat cultivars, namely cultivar CM82036 that is resistant to DON-induced bleaching of spikelet tissue and cultivar Remus that is not. However, DON treatment of roots led to genotype-dependent and light-enhanced defence transcript accumulation in coleoptiles. Wheat transcripts encoding a phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene (previously associated Fusarium resistance), non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes-1 (NPR1) and a class III plant peroxidase (POX) were DON-up-regulated in coleoptiles of wheat cultivar CM82036 but not of cultivar Remus, and DON-up-regulation of these transcripts in cultivar CM82036 was light-enhanced. Light and genotype-dependent differences in the DON content of coleoptiles were also observed (significantly higher in light than dark and in cultivar CM82036 than cultivar Remus coleoptiles). These results, coupled with previous findings regarding the effect of DON of plants, suggest that the chloroplast is a target site for this toxin and that the promotion of cell survival and light-regulated defence responses might be important components of wheat responses that confer resistance to DON and hence to DON-producing Fusarium.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Systemic Growth of F. graminearum in Wheat Plants and Related Accumulation of Deoxynivalenol
Authors: A. Moretti 1, G. Panzarini 1, S. Somma 1, C. Campagna 2, S. Ravaglia 3 and M. Solfrizzo 1
Affiliations: 1 Institute of Sciences of Food Production, Research National Council (ISPA-CNR), Via Amendola 1222/O, 70126, Bari, Italy
2 Syngenta Crop Protection Italia, Via Gallarate 139, 20151, Milano, Italy
3 S.I.S. – Società Italiana Sementi spa, Via Mirandola 5, 40068, San Lazzaro di Savena (Bo), Italy
Abstract: Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an important disease of wheat worldwide caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum (syn. Gibberella zeae). This fungus can be highly aggressive and can produce several mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON), a well know harmful metabolite for humans, animals, and plants. The fungus can survive overwinter on wheat residues and on the soil and usually can attack the wheat plant at the flowering, being able to infect the ears and to contaminate the kernels at the maturity. Contaminated kernels can be sometimes used as seeds for the cultivation of the following year. Poor knowledge on the ability of the strains of F. graminearum occurring on wheat seeds to be transmitted to the plant and to contribute to the final DON contamination of kernels is available. Therefore, this study had the goals of evaluating: (a) the capability of F. graminearum causing FHB of wheat to be transmitted from the seeds or soil to the kernels at maturity and the progress of the disease within the plant at different growth stages; (b) the levels of DON contamination in both plant tissues and kernels. The study has been carried out for two years in a climatic chamber. The F. gramineraum strain selected for the inoculation was followed within the plant by using Vegetative Compatibility Group (VCG), and quantified by Real-Time PCR. Chemical analyses of DON were carried out by using immunoaffinity cleanup and HPLC/UV/DAD. The study showed that F. graminearum originated from seed or soil can grown systemically in the plant tissues, but kernels. There seems to be a kind of barrier for the fungus to entry the heads. High levels of DON and F. graminearum were found in stems, and crowns, whereas high levels of only DON were detected in the straw, low levels of DON were found in kernels, and no detectable levels of F. graminearum were found in both straw and kernels. Finally, in the ears, at milk and vitreous ripening stages, and in the straw, also the accumulation of significant quantities of masked DON (DON3G), a product of DON glycosylation, was detected, with higher levels distributed in the straw, milk ripening and vitreous ripening stages, respectively. The presence of DON in kernels without the occurrence of F. graminearum may be explained by its water solubility that could facilitate its translocation from stem to kernels. On the other hand, the higher levels of DON in the ears at the milk stage compared vitreous stage indicate that possible degradation of this mycotoxin could occur in the kernels and the growing level of DON3G from milk to vitreous stages seem to confirm this hypothesis.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: FT-NIR Spectroscopy for the Rapid Analysis of Deoxynivalenol in Wheat
Author: Annalisa De Girolamo
Affiliation: Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council of Italy (CNR-ISPA), Bari, Italy; E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a type B trichothecene mycotoxin mainly produced by several Fusarium species occurring in cereals. Rapid and low cost methods for DON determination in cereals is highly demanded to screen its occurrence in cereal batches delivered to elevators or mills. The feasibility of using Fourier-transform-near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy for rapid and non-invasive analysis of DON in unprocessed durum wheat (n = 350 samples) at levels up to 5 µg/g was developed. In particular, a Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression model was developed using correlation data between FT-NIR and HPLC (confirming method) data. Values of slopes and coefficients of correlation obtained in both calibration and validation confirmed a fit between HPLC and FT-NIR data in the tested range with a root mean square error of prediction value (RMSEP) of approximately 0.80 µg/g. Performance results indicated an “approximate ability” of the PLS model to predict DON levels in wheat. The validity of using FT-NIR spectroscopy to qualitatively discriminate wheat samples based on their content of DON was also investigated by applying the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model on a set of samples (n = 460) contaminated with DON levels up to 16 µg/g. Wheat samples were classified into two different groups by using cut-off limits in the range of 1.0 and 1.7 µg/g DON. Results indicated that FT-NIR analysis was able to correctly discriminate up to 90% of wheat samples when a cut-off limit of 1.5 µg/g was fixed to distinguish the classes of samples. Performances of the proposed LDA method suggest that FT-NIR analysis might be a promising, inexpensive and easy-to-use screening tool to rapidly discriminate durum wheat samples for DON content and verify the compliance with the EU regulatory level.
Type of Paper: Review
Title: Deoxynivalenol Biosynthesis during Wheat Infection and Colonization by Fusarium graminearum
Authors: Jörg Bormann and Wilhelm Schäfer
Affiliation: Molecular Phytopathology, University of Hamburg, Germany; E-Mail: email@example.com (W.S.)
Abstract: Fusarium graminearum is one of the most destructive pathogens of cereals and a threat to food and feed production worldwide. Infection especially of wheat leads to yield losses and mycotoxin contamination. Deoxynivalenol is a hazardous mycotoxin inhibiting the biosynthesis of proteins. Its production by the fungus is a prerequisite for the colonization of the wheat spike. Combining molecular genetics with light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and electron microscopy enables us to follow the infection and colonization of F. graminearum and simultaneously the onset of DON production during specific infection stages. In detail, we will show the development of complex infection structures on the surface of wheat flower leaves and subsequent penetration. This initial infection is followed by colonization inside the spikelet, growth thorough the rachis node into the rachis, which is followed by its complete colonization. We´ll demonstrate how F. graminearum grows down the stalk and through stomata into the open where the fungus starts to build protoperithecia. Ultimately, this will allow him to start a new infection cycle. Throughout the development we will show when DON production occurs and discuss its pathogenic necessity allowing a fascinating insight into the pathobiology of this cereal pathogen.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Using Botanicals to Control Fusarium Head Blight and to Reduce the Mycotoxin Contamination of Wheat
Authors: Hans-Rudolf Forrer, Eveline Jenny, Tomke Musa, Thomas D. Bucheli and Susanne Vogelgsang
Affiliation: Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station ART, 8046 Zurich, Switzerland; E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org (S.V.)
Abstract: Extracts and ground meals of antifungal botanicals (ABs) including Galla chinensis, Rheum palmatum and Frangula alnus were tested against growth and spore germination of Fusarium graminearum and F. crookwellense as well as for control of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat. The effect of the ABs on disease suppression and mycotoxin reduction was compared with tannic acid and a commercial fungicide.
In climate chambers with the best AB and tannic acid, up to 80% reduction of disease and deoxynivalenol (DON) were observed. In field trials with artificial or with natural infections and applications according to the forecasting system FusaProg, FHB and DON reductions of up to 80% or 50%, respectively, were obtained.
Type of Paper: Review
Title: Review on the Effects of Deoxynivalenol in Swine
Authors: E.D. Tzika and P.D. Tassis
Affiliation: Farm Animals Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; E-Mail: email@example.com (E.D.T.)
Abstract: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a type B trichothecene that occurs in grains such as wheat, barley, oats and other, worldwide, therefore contaminated feed consumption by swine can be quite common. Swine have already been proved to be susceptible to DON and reduction of feed efficiency, as well as clinical signs from the gastrointestinal tract are common findings after DON consumption. Other clinical signs as well as histopathology findings in swine are numerous and diverse depending on various factors such as time of exposure, level of feed contamination, concurrent mycotoxins (e.g., zearalenone) in feed and other. The aim of this review is a thorough description and comprehension of the DON menace to swine health according to latest research data.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Assessment of Human Exposure to Deoxynivalenol and Other Important Mycotoxins in Southern Italy through Measurement of Urinary Biomarkers
Authors: M. Solfrizzo, L. Gambacorta and A. Visconti
Affiliation: Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council, via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari, Italy; E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org (M.S.)
Abstract: An improved LC-MS/MS method was used to measure biomarker(s) of exposure to deoxynivalenol (DON) and other important mycotoxins such as zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisin B1 (FB1), ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxin B1 in urine of 52 volunteers resident in Southern Italy. DON was detected in 96% of volunteers whereas ZEA and its hydroxylated metabolites, OTA, FB1 and AFM1 were detected in 100%, 100%, 56% and 6% of samples, respectively. The estimated intake of DON and OTA exceeded the values of tolerable daily intake (TDI) for these mycotoxins in 42% and 92% of volunteers, respectively. The estimated intake of FB1 and ZEA were below the relevant values of TDI for all subjects.
Type of Paper: Review
Title: Deoxynivalenol: a Major Player in the Multifaceted Response of Fusarium to Its Environment
Authors: Kris Audenaert 1,2, Monica Höfte 2, Adriaan Vanheule 1,2 and Geert Haesaert 1,2
Affiliations: 1 Department of Plant Production, Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Applied Bioscience Engineering, Building C, University College Ghent, Valentin Vaerwyckweg 1, 9000 Ghent, Belgium; E-Mail: email@example.com (K.A.)
2 Department of Crop Protection, Laboratory of Phytopathology, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Abstract: The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by several Fusarium spp. is known to act as a virulence factor, and is imperative in the spreading of symptoms after initial infection of wheat. However, besides this well-characterized role, evidence is accumulating that this secondary metabolite is triggered by other environmental signals as well. The exposure of Fusarium to fungicides, the interaction with other micro organisms, and the exposure to oxidative stress are all environmental triggers that activate the DON biosynthesis machinery. This review will provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on the physiology behind DON biosynthesis by Fusarium as the result of an interplay with its environment.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Effects of Bread Making and Wheat Germ Addition on the Natural Deoxynivalenol Content in Bread
Authors: Isabel Giménez 1, Jesús Blesa 2, Marta Herrera 1 and Agustín Ariño 1,*
Affiliations: 1 University of Zaragoza, Veterinary Faculty, c/Miguel Servet 177, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain
2 University of Valencia, Pharmacy Faculty, Avda. Vicent Andrés Estellés, s/n, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia), Spain
* Corresponding author. E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel.: +34 876 554131; Fax: +34 976 761612.
Abstract: The effect of bread making on the stability of deoxynivalenol (DON) was evaluated in normal bread and wheat germ-enriched bread made in a food processing plant, using naturally contaminated ingredients. During the bread making process, deoxynivalenol was reduced by 2.1% after fermentation and dropped by 7.1% after cooking, reaching a maximum reduction of 19.8% in the crust as compared with a decrease of 5.6% in the crumb. The addition of 15% wheat germ to the dough did not affect deoxynivalenol stability during bread making, showing an apparent increase of 3.5% after fermentation and a reduction by 10.2% after cooking.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Lines Show Different Ability to Form Masked Mycotoxins under Greenhouse Conditions
Authors: Martina Cirlini 1, Silvia Generotti 2, Pietro Lancioni 3, Gianluca Ferrazzano 3, Andrea Massi 3, Michele Suman 2, Gianni Galaverna 1 and Chiara Dall’Asta 1,*
Affiliations: 1 Department of Food Science, University of Parma, Italy; E-Mail: email@example.com (C.D.)
2 Barilla G.R. F.lli SpA., Parma, Italy
3 Società Produttori Sementi, Argelato (BO), Italy
Abtract: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene in Europe and its occurrence is associated with infections of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, causal agents of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) on wheat. Resistance to FHB is a complex character and high variability occurs in the relationship between DON content and FHB incidence. DON conjugation to glucose (DON-3-glucoside, DON3G) is the primary plant mechanism for resistance towards DON accumulation. Although this mechanism has been already described in bread wheat and in barley, no data are reported so far about durum wheat, a key cereal in the pasta production chain. To address this issue, the ability of durum wheat to detoxify and convert deoxynivalenol into DON3G was studied under greenhouse controlled conditions. Four durum wheat varieties (Svevo, Claudio, Kofa and Neodur) were assessed for DON-DON3G conversion; Sumai 3, a bread wheat variety carrying a major QTL for FHB resistance (QFhs.ndsu-3B) was used as a positive control. In addition, preliminary experiments considering the eventual formation of T-2, HT-2 and NIV masked forms were also performed. Data reported hereby clearly demonstrate the ability of durum wheat to convert Fusarium mycotoxins into its conjugated forms.
Type of Paper: Review
Title: Effect of Type B Trichothecenes on the Intestine: A Review
Authors: Philippe Pinton 1,2 and Isabelle P. Oswald 1,2,*
Affiliations: 1 INRA, UMR1331, Toxalim, Research Centre in Food Toxicology, F-31027 Toulouse, France; E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Université de Toulouse, INP, UMR1331, Toxalim, F- 31000 Toulouse, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: Isabelle.Oswald@toulouse.inra.fr; Tel.: +33 561285480.
Abstract: The gastrointestinal tract is the first barrier against food contaminants as well as the first target for these toxicants. The natural food contaminants mycotoxins are regarded as an important risk factor for human and animal health as up to 25% of the world's crop production may be contaminated. The Fusarium genus produces high quantities of fusariotoxins among which the trichothecenes are considered as an ubiquitous problem in the world. An increasing number of studies suggest that intestinal epithelial cells are important targets for type B trichothecenes and in humans, various adverse digestive symptoms are observed on acute exposure. In animals, they induce pathological lesions, including necrosis of the intestinal epithelium. They affect the integrity of intestinal epithelium through alterations in cell morphology and differentiation and in the barrier function. Moreover these toxins modulate the activity of intestinal epithelium in its role in immune responsiveness. Type B trichothecenes affect the cytokine production by intestinal or immune cells and are supposed to interfere with the cross-talk between epithelial cells and other intestinal immune cells. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the effects of type B trichothecenes, on the intestine.
Keywords: barrier function; food-contaminant; immune response; intestinal lesions; mycotoxins
Type of Paper: Review
Title: The Impact of Deoxynivalenol and Other Fusarium Mycotoxins on Animal Susceptibility to Enteric Infections
Authors: G. Antonissen 1,2, A. Martel 2, F. Pasmans 2, R. Ducatelle 2, F. Van Immerseel 2 and S. Croubels 1
Affiliations: 1 Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium; E-Mail: Siska.Croubels@UGent.be (S.C.)
2 Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
Abstract: Contamination of feeds with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. From an economical point of view, Fusarium mycotoxins are the most significant. Nowadays, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in animal production, but chronic exposure to low levels of fusariotoxins are commonly responsible for reduced productivity, altered immunity and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. The negative influence of Fusarium mycotoxins on the intestinal barrier can lead to invasion of pathogens. This review will provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on the interactions between deoxynivalenol, other fusariotoxins and animal susceptibility to enteric infections.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Deoxynivalenol and Oxidative Stress Indicators in Winter Wheat Inoculated with Fusarium graminearum
Authors: A. Waśkiewicz 1, I. Morkunas 2, W. Bednarski 3, M. Formela 2, M. Beszterda 1, H. Wiśniewska 4 and P. Goliński 1,*
Affiliations: 1 Department of Chemistry, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 75, 60-625 Poznań, Poland
2 Department of Plant Physiology, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wołyńska 35, 60-637 Poznań, Poland
3 Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań, Poland
4 Department of Genomics, Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Strzeszyńska 34, 60-479 Poznań, Poland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: email@example.com;
Tel.: +48 61 848 78 37; Fax: +48 61 848 78 24.
Abstract: Analyses concerned assessments of mycotoxin contents (deoxynivalenol and zearalenone) as well as the level of oxidative stress in winter wheat - in ears of a susceptible cv. Hanseat and a resistant cv. Arina at inoculation with Fusarium graminarum. Starting from 48 h after inoculation an increase was observed in the contents of both mycotoxins in ears of wheat. The susceptible cultivar was characterised by a greater accumulation of deoxynivalenol than the resistant cultivar. At the same time in this cultivar at all time points after inoculation the post-infection level of peroxide anion radical generation was higher than in the control. In the wheat cv. Arina a markedly higher level of peroxide anion radical generation in relation to the control was recorded at a later time after inoculation with F. graminarum. In turn, the level of semiquinone radical detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) increased at later time points of culture both in cv. Hanseat and Arina and it was lower than in the control.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Deoxynivalenol in Gastrointestinal Tract of Immature Gilts under per os Toxin Application
Authors: A. Waśkiewicz 1, M. Beszterda 1, M. Kostecki 1, M. Gajęcki 2 and P. Goliński 1,*
Affiliations: 1 Department of Chemistry, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 75, 60-625 Poznan, Poland
2 Department of Veterinary Prevention and Feed Hygiene, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
Abstract: Deoxynivalenol - known also as vomitoxin - because of its impact on livestock through interference with animal growth and acceptance of feed. At the molecular level, deoxynivalenol disrupts normal cell function by inhibiting protein synthesis via binding to the ribosome and by activating critical cellular kinases involved in signal transduction related to proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Because of concerns about deoxynivalenol, the United States FDA has instituted advisory levels of 5 µg/g for grain products for most animal feeds and 10 µg/g for grain products for cattle feed. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of low doses of deoxynivalenol applied per os on presence of this mycotoxin in tissues of the alimentary canal in gilts. The study was performed on 18 animals, 20 kg body weight at the beginning of the experiment. Gilts received toxin in doses of 12 µg/kg b. w./day and were slaughtered after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks of the experiment. The tissues samples were prepared to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis with application of solid phase extraction (SPE). The obtained results show that the doses of deoxynivalenol used in our study, even when applied for a short period, resulted in its presence in tissues. The highest concentration levels of deoxynivalenol reported in small intestine samples in the range from 7.2 (in duodenum) to 18.6 ng/g (in ileum) and in large intestine samples from 1.8 (in transverse colon) to 23.0 ng/g (in caecum). In liver tissues the deoxynivalenol contents ranging from 6.7 to 8.8 ng/g.
Last update: 6 November 2013